Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Methodol. Sep 20, 2021; 11(5): 231-242
Published online Sep 20, 2021. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v11.i5.231
Genomics in medicine: A new era in medicine
Vishwanath Pattan, Rahul Kashyap, Vikas Bansal, Narsimha Candula, Thoyaja Koritala, Salim Surani
Vishwanath Pattan, Division of Endocrinology, Wyoming Medical Center, Casper, WY 82601, United States
Rahul Kashyap, Vikas Bansal, Department of Anesthesiology and Peri-operative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States
Narsimha Candula, Hospital Medicine, University Florida Health, Jacksonville, FL 32209, United States
Thoyaja Koritala, Hospital Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, Mankato, MN 56001, United States
Salim Surani, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, TX 78405, United States
Author contributions: Pattan V, Kashyap R and Surani S were involved with idea origination, writing and review of manuscript; Bansal V, Candula N and Koritala T were involved in writing and review of literature.
Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors have any conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Salim Surani, FACC, FACP, FCCP, MD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A&M University, 701 Ayers Street, Corpus Christi, TX 78405, United States.
Received: January 12, 2021
Peer-review started: January 12, 2021
First decision: June 17, 2021
Revised: June 18, 2021
Accepted: July 19, 2021
Article in press: July 19, 2021
Published online: September 20, 2021

The sequencing of complete human genome revolutionized the genomic medicine. However, the complex interplay of gene-environment-lifestyle and influence of non-coding genomic regions on human health remain largely unexplored. Genomic medicine has great potential for diagnoses or disease prediction, disease prevention and, targeted treatment. However, many of the promising tools of genomic medicine are still in their infancy and their application may be limited because of the limited knowledge we have that precludes its use in many clinical settings. In this review article, we have reviewed the evolution of genomic methodologies/tools, their limitations, and scope, for current and future clinical application.

Keywords: Genomic medicine, Medical genetics, Gene sequencing, DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, Gene based therapy, Genomic tools, Genome editing

Core Tip: The field of Genomics is the future of medicine, as evidenced by the unprecedented research and clinical application which pushed the time boundaries for the coronavirus disease 2019 mRNA vaccines. However the path to unleashing the potential from genomic tools is far from perfect. A thorough research with international collaboration and cooperation is a necessity and the need of the hour.