Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Transl Med. Aug 26, 2022; 10(3): 29-42
Published online Aug 26, 2022. doi: 10.5528/wjtm.v10.i3.29
Table 1 Technical specifications
ManufacturerImportant to consider well known sellers in the market, making wise cost-effective decisions
Device IDFor reference and tracking of malfunctioning equipment
Year producedIt is always best to choose the latest and most recent models to guarantee long-term success
Beam delivery systemLight can be delivered into the tissue via manual probe apparatus, fiberoptic or free air/scanned
Number of emittersLeft to the practitioner’s decision
Emitter typeThere are different types of laser such as KTP, LEDs, InGaAlP, and GaAlAs
Spatial distributionNumber of emitters and the distance between them as well as the pattern of distribution
Table 2 Photobiomodulation treatment parameters
ParametersSI unitsAdditional notes
Exposure durationSeconds (sec)Some tissues may require more or less exposure duration, depending on the physical traits of the patient. For instance, obese individuals
Radiant exposureJoules per centimeter squared (J/cm2)Intensity of the equipment must be adequately regulated depending on the different points to be irradiated. If the power density is too low, extending the irradiation time to reach the ideal energy density may not give an adequate final result. This should not be confused with “dose”
Number of irradiated points-Left to practitioner’s decision depending on the treatment plan
Area irradiatedCentimeter squared (cm2)Area of target tissue must be carefully measured with precision for optimal results
Manual technique-Physicians must keep consistent pressure against the target point to ensure optimal delivery and penetration into the target tissue
Total number of sesssions-Number may vary depending on how the patient responds to the treatment
Session intervals
Irradiance at target pointMilliwatts per centimeter squared (mW/cm2)This parameter must be adequately regulated depending on the different points to be irradiated, otherwise, the absorption of photons will not be sufficient to attain the desired result. Additionally, very high intensities may generate excessive heat
Beam spot size at target pointCentimeter squared (cm2)This must be carefully measured with precision for optimal results
Radiant energyJoules (J)Different tissues may require more or less energy according to the patient’s unique physical attributes (e.g. skin pigmentation and mass)
Total radiant energyJoules (J)The total accumulated energy delivered per session and over all sessions
Table 3 Irradiation
ParametersSI unitsAdditional observations
Operating mode-Physicians may select a continuous or pulsed wave, for example
Pulse on durationSeconds (sec)It is important to equally distribute time intervals between pulse on and pulse off cycles
Pulse off durationSeconds (sec)
Irradiance at apertureMilliwatts per centimeter squared (mW/cm2)Irradiance can be significantly affected by the angular aperture of the light guide. For instance, irradiance measured with an aperture is greater than that without an aperture. Physicians should always keep this in mind
Aperture diameterCentimeters (cm) Values may vary significantly across different manufacturers and specific devices are better suited for different application objectives
Beam divergenceRadians or degrees (rad/deg)Beam divergence may be an important variable depending on the nature and localization of the target tissue
Beam shape-The beams may be circular or elliptical, for instance
Laser beam polarization-The electric field vibration can be simple, with only one direction along the beam path (linear polarization) or it can be complex
Beam profile-Depending on the scenario (clinical or laboratory study), a specific profile may be indicated, such as Gaussian or Top Hat
Peak radiant powerMilliwatts (mW)This variable must be carefully adjusted according to the target sample being irradiated
Average radiant powerMilliwatts (mW)
Center wavelength (CW). And Spectral bandwidth (FWHM – range of wavelengths)Nanometers (nm)Practitioners must carefully select a suitable device with the appropriate wavelength and bandwidth specifications for the intended objectives. The FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) filter is important because outside the ideal bandwidth range light can be significantly attenuated
FrequencyHertz (Hz)The operator should always be aware of the frequency being applied to the area
Energy per pulseJoules (J)This parameter must be adequately regulated depending on the different points to be irradiated. Different tissues may require more or less energy per pulse. In clinical scenarios, the corporal density of each patient may vary significantly. In three-dimensional tissue cultures there are fewer layers of materials impeding light penetration and less scattering