Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Nephrol. Feb 6, 2015; 4(1): 57-73
Published online Feb 6, 2015. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i1.57
Table 2 Novel biomarkers in chronic kidney disease
Biomarker sourceRef.Population/type of studyCommentaries
u-LFABP UrinaryNielsen et al[190]227 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients/longitudinalBaseline u-LFABP levels predicted development of microalbuminuria (HR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.1-4.6), and predicted mortality (HR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.3-7.0)
NAG UrinaryKern et al[191]87 type 1 diabetics with microalbuminuria and 174 controls/longitudinalBaseline NAG independently predicted microalbuminuria (OR = 1.86, P < 0.001) and macroalbuminuria (OR = 2.26, P < 0.001) but risk was attenuated in multivariate models
CTGF UrinaryNguyen et al[192]318 type 1 diabetic patients and 29 control subjects/cross sectionalU-CGTF was significantly higher in diabetic nephropathy than micro o normoalbuminuria. U-CGTF correlated with albuminuria and GFR
IL-18 Kidney tissueMiyauchi et al[193]12 type 2 diabetes with overt nephropathy and 7 patients with MCD/cross sectionalIL-18 expression in tubular cells was observed highly observed (83%) in patients with diabetes but only observed in 14.3% of MCD
ApoA-IV PlasmaBoes et al[194]177 non-diabetic patients with mild to modetare renal CKD/longitudinalBaseline ApoA-IV was a significant predictor of disease progression (HR = 1.062, 95%CI: 1.018-1.108) and patients with level above the median had significantly faster progression compared with patients with level below median (P < 0.0001)
CD14 mononuclear cells UrinaryZhou et al[195]16 patients with autosomal dominat polycystic kidney disease/longitudinalBaseline urinary CD14 mononuclear cells correlated with 2 yr change in total kidney volume in males
NGALBolignano et al[121]33 patients with glomerulonephritis and proteinuria > 1 g per day/cross sectionalu-NGAL was higher in glomerulonephritis compared with controls and significantly correlated with serum creatinine and urinary protein excretion
UrinarySmith et al[124]158 patients with CKD stages 3 and 4/longitudinalu-NCR was associated with a higher risk of death and initiation of renal replacement therapy
UrinaryBolignano et al[125]96 white patients with CKD/longitudinalBaseline urinary and serum NGAL were predictors of CKD progression
Urinary/serumShen et al[119]92 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis CKD stage 2-4, and 20 control subjects/longitudinals-NGAL levels were higher compared to controls and negatively correlated with the eGFR Patients with sNGAL level > 246 ng/mL had a poor 2 yr renal survival compared with the control group
SerumBhavsar et al[123]286 participants from the ARIC and 143 matched controls/longitudinalHigher quiartiles of NGAL (but no KIM-1) were associated with incident CKD
KIM-1 SerumKrolewski et al[111]107 diabetic type 1 with CKD 1-3 (AER > 500 mg/24 h)/longitudinalBaseline plasma KIM-1 levels correlated with rate of eGFR decline KIM-1 levels (> 97 pg/mL) correlated with progression to ESRD
UrinaryPeters et al[109]65 patients with Proteinuric IgAN and 65 control subjects/longitudinalIn patients with IgAN uKIM-1 excretion was significantly higher than controls uKIM-1 is independently predictor of ESRD
FGF-23Nakano et al[134]738 Japanese patients with CKD stages 1-5/longitudinalLevels of FGF-23 associated with kidney function decline or initiation renal replacement therapy
SerumFliser et al[137]227 non diabetic patients with CKD stages 1-4/longitudinalFGF-23 was an independent predictor of CKD progression
Lee et al[138]380 patients with type 2 diabetes/longitudinalLevels of FGF-23 was associated with increased risk of ESRD and was a significant risk factor for all cause mortality