Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Nephrol. May 6, 2015; 4(2): 196-212
Published online May 6, 2015. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.196
Figure 1
Figure 1 Dopamine receptors and regulation of redox state. Full line: Stimulation; Dotted line: Inhibition. D1R: Dopamine receptor subtype 1; D2R: Dopamine receptor subtype 2; D5R: Dopamine receptor subtype 5; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; HO-1: Heme oxygenase 1; HO-2: Heme oxygenase 2; PON2: Paraoxonase 2; DJ-1: Parkinson protein 7; GP: Glutathione peroxidase; GCT: Glutamyl cysteine transferase.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Impaired renal dopaminergic system and its association with hypertension. Red full squares and arrows indicate those factors that promote the impairment of renal dopamine; blue dotted squares and arrows indicate those factors that enhance renal dopaminergic system. IR: Insulin-resistance; COMT: Catechol-O-methyl-transferase; MAO: Monoamine-oxidase: AT1: Angiotensin II receptor subtype 1; AT2: Angiotensin II receptor subtype 2; COX-2: Cyclooxygenase type 2; ANP: Atrial natriuretic peptide; NPR-A: Natriuretic peptide receptor type A; LATs: L-aminoacids transporters; OCTs: Organic cationic transporters; GRK4: G-protein receptor kinase 4.
Figure 3
Figure 3 Association between diabetes and renal dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2; GFR: Glomerular filtration rate; SNGFR: Single nephron glomerular filtration; eNOS: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase; ROS: Reactive oxygen species.
Figure 4
Figure 4 Association between insulin resistance and impairment of renal dopaminergic system. Full lines: Stimulation; stripped lines: Inhibition.
Figure 5
Figure 5 Impaired interactions between ANP and renal dopamine in nephrotic syndrome. Full lines: Stimulation; stripped lines: Inhibition. PDE5: Phosphodiesterase type 5.