Published online May 6, 2015. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.235
Peer-review started: July 24, 2014
First decision: August 14, 2014
Revised: August 29, 2014
Accepted: February 4, 2015
Article in press: February 9, 2015
Published online: May 6, 2015
Core tip: Hyperoxaluria is a disorder characterized by increased urinary oxalate excretion. Primary hyperoxaluria is an inherited defect of oxalate metabolism while secondary hyperoxaluria is seen in states of increased ingestion of oxalate, its precursors or altered gut flora. These disorders can lead to recurrent renal stones, nephrocalcinosis and eventually end stage renal disease. Despite these common features, the sub types of hyperoxaluria differ in their pathogenesis, severity of clinical presentation and treatment plan. Prompt clinical recognition and distinction between these disorders is essential not only for timely intervention but also impacts prognosis in patients with hyperoxaluria.