Published online May 6, 2015. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.169
Peer-review started: August 30, 2014
First decision: December 2, 2014
Revised: December 22, 2014
Accepted: January 15, 2015
Article in press: January 19, 2015
Published online: May 6, 2015
Core tip: Our therapeutical armamentarium is to date limited in many kidney diseases and in several aspects of renal transplantation. The findings that complement cascade is involved in many kidney diseases and in renal transplantation offer the availability of new therapeutical targets basing on the pathogenesis. The anti C5 monoclonal antibody, eculizumab, is now used to treat the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), but 24 trials are ongoing in different renal diseases and in renal transplantation. Other targets as C1, C3, C5a, and C5aR are innovative treatments for diseases as aHUS, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and objects of ongoing trials.