Published online Aug 12, 2015. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v4.i3.156
Peer-review started: February 5, 2015
First decision: April 27, 2015
Revised: June 23, 2015
Accepted: July 29, 2015
Article in press: August 3, 2015
Published online: August 12, 2015
Core tip: Several promising strategies of vaccination have been proposed over the past years to treat and/or prevent infectious and cancer diseases. These include live attenuated or inactivated viral vaccines, recombinant viral vectors, DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines, nanoparticle carriers, and lipid-based delivery systems such as liposomes and virosomes. Although some of these suffer from certain limitations (e.g., safety concerns, weak immunogenicity, adverse side-effects associated with adjuvants), recent advances in vaccine technology have provided further insights for guiding vaccine design. Here, we review the current status of antigen delivery systems with emphasis on a versatile and immunogenic vaccine delivery candidate: the “E2 scaffold”.