Published online Aug 12, 2015. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v4.i3.295
Peer-review started: November 10, 2014
First decision: January 20, 2015
Revised: February 13, 2015
Accepted: May 5, 2015
Article in press: May 6, 2015
Published online: August 12, 2015
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented.
Core tip: To inform scientific community, this short review summarizes existing foot-and-mouth disease diagnostics developed in the recent past and used in India. Immediate and future requirements in the diagnostics are highlighted.