Published online Jul 12, 2015. doi: 10.5499/wjr.v5.i2.59
Peer-review started: July 1, 2014
First decision: July 18, 2014
Revised: March 24, 2015
Accepted: April 10, 2015
Article in press: April 14, 2015
Published online: July 12, 2015
Core tip: This article reviews the most up to date theories regarding the production of pathogenic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in antiphospholipid syndrome. It focuses on both the genetic and environmental aspects related to aPL production. The genetic factors highlighted include human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA associations and where available, data linking genes to clinical manifestations is presented. The key infectious agents linked to the formation of pathogenic aPL and those mechanisms by which these agents induce a break in immune tolerance are also discussed.