Published online Nov 12, 2013. doi: 10.5499/wjr.v3.i3.16
Revised: August 15, 2013
Accepted: August 20, 2013
Published online: November 12, 2013
Core tip: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatologic disease in children. Diagnosis of JIA is based on the history and physical examination findings. There is not a diagnostic laboratory test for JIA. Recent advances in the understanding of the immune system pathways involved in inflammation and self-tolerance have provided new targets for treatment of JIA. Biologic agents targeting key cytokines implicated in JIA, suh as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 as well as signaling molecules involved in the regulation of B-cell and T-cell lymphocyte responses, have promising results.