Copyright ©2012 Baishideng.
World J Psychiatr. Oct 22, 2012; 2(5): 74-82
Published online Oct 22, 2012. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v2.i5.74
Table 1 Adherence evaluation methods
Detection of the drug or drug metabolitesObjective
Direct observationTablet count
Electronic monitoring
Pharmacy records
Psychometric scales
Questioning the patient
Questioning the relatives
Clinical judgment
Table 2 Identified risk factors for non-adherence by patients with schizophrenia
Patient-related risk factors
Sociodemographic factors
Younger and older patients
General clinical factors
Drugs or alcohol consumption
Previous non-adherence
Psychopathological symptoms
Impaired insight
Cognitive deficiency
Delusion of persecution, poisoning or grandeur
Psychotic symptoms
Negative symptoms
Psychological factors: attitudes, beliefs and other subjective aspects
Negative attitude toward the treatment
Negative subjective response to treatment
Regarding the disease as mild and/or perceived minor benefit from treatment
Shame or stigmatization associated with the medication or the disease
Environment-related risk factors
Poor social and familial support
Negative social perception of the disease
Difficulty accessing healthcare services
Physician-related risk factors
Poor relationship with the therapist
Poor psychoeducation and information to patients and relatives
Poor contact with the therapist
Inadequate planning of the post-discharge period
Treatment-related risk factors
Ineffectiveness against persistent symptoms (psychotic and negative symptoms)
Fear of adverse effects
Complex medication schedule
Poorer adherence to oral than to intramuscular treatments