Copyright ©2012 Baishideng.
World J Psychiatr. Feb 22, 2012; 2(1): 13-25
Published online Feb 22, 2012. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v2.i1.13
Table 1 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis functioning and its relationship with childhood traumata and psychopathology in post-traumatic stress disordered patients
AuthorControl groupSampleCortisol levelsACTH levelsSuppression (DST)Stress testCorrelations with childhood traumata and psychopathology
Lemieux et al[46], 19959 non abused women; 8 abused women w/o PTSD11 abused women with PTSD↑ Basal urinary levels---↑ Scores on Impact Event Scale related to cortisol levels in PTSD sample
De Bellis et al[48], 199910 non-traumatized children; 24 healthy controls18 children with PTSD due to childhood maltreatment↑ Basal urinary levels---↑ Psychopathology
Bremner et al[66], 200318 HC23 patients with abuse-related PTSDSalivary cortisol: 61% higher--Cognitive challengeNeurohormonal response to stress in PTSD subjects is not impaired
Waiting for test; 46% higher during test
Luecken[52], 199831 HC30 students who lost one parent before age 16↑ Salivary levels post task--Video clip depicting the death of a parent + speech taskAltered neurohormonal responses to stress in those who lost one parent
Elzinga et al[53], 200312 abused women without PTSD12 abused women with PTSDSalivary cortisol: 60% higher waiting for test; 122% higher during test; 69% higher during recovery--Personalized trauma scriptsAltered neurohormonal responses to stress in PTSD abused women
Rasmusson et al[56], 200111 HC12 outpatients with PTSD= Plasma basal levels; ↑ plasma and urinary post tests levels= Basal levels; ↑ post CRF levels-CRF and ACTH stimulation testsAltered neurohormonal responses to stress in PTSD subjects
Santa Ana et al[57], 200631 HC58 subjects with PTSD (25 with childhood trauma)↓ Plasma basal and post↓ Post task-Cold Pressor Task-
Task, if childhood trauma
De Bellis et al[58], 199413 HC girls13 sexually abused girls= Plasma and salivary basal and post CRH↓ Basal and post CRH-CRH stimulation test↑ Adult psychopathology and altered hormonal responses to stress
Stein et al[61], 199721 non abused women19 children and/or adolescent with sexual abuse--Low dose DST (0.5 mg)↑ Adult psychopathology
Yehuda et al[31], 200410 non traumatized subjects52 traumatized subjects--Low dose DST (0.5 mg)-
Jovanovic et al[59], 201061 traumatized non PTSD subjects29 traumatized PTSD subjects= Basal plasma levels; ↓ post Dex plasma levels↓ Post DexLow dose DST (0.5 mg)Abnormalities of HPA feedback and ↑ psychopathology
Altemus et al[62], 200315 HC16 women with PTSD due to childhood abuse= Basal plasma and salivary levels----
Lindley et al[47], 200417 HC17 subjects with PTSD (88% due to childhood trauma)↑ Basal salivary levels-=Low dose DST (0.5 mg)No correlations between cortisol, childhood abuse and psychopathology
Table 2 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis functioning in panic disordered patients
AuthorControl groupSampleCortisol levelsACTH levelsDSTStress test
Woods et al[71], 198713 HC18 drug-free agoraphobic patientsPlasma cortisol not increased during PA--Exposure to phobic situations
Goldstein et al[76], 198761 HC; 38 outpatients with MDE24 outpatients PD↑ Basal plasma cortisol vs HC; = plasma cortisol vs MDE-=Dex 1 mg
Cameron et al[74],19874 HC8 PD patients= In basal conditions; ↑ during spontaneous PA---
Kathol et al[77], 198837 HC65 PD subjects↑ Urinary cortisol---
Uhde et al[75], 198812 HC12 drug-free PD patients= Basal cortisol---
Abelson et al[78], 199612 HC20 PD subjects↑ Overnight plasma cortisol; ↑ amplitude of ultradian secretory episodesIf low frequency of PA→↑ daytime ACTH levels and ↑ ACTH ultradian amplitude. If high frequency of PA→ shifted ACTH circadian cycles--
Schreiber et al[30], 199610 MDE subjects, 10 HC13 PD subjects wth agoraphobia↑ Plasma cortisol versus controls= Levels in PD vs controls and MDE subjects92% non suppressors (higher than MDE subjects and controls)69% abnormal Dex-CRH test (more than controls, but lesser than MDE subjects)
Bandelow et al[73], 200023 HC23 PD patients↑ Urinary and salivary cortisol---
Coryell et al[81], 198938 HC82 PD patients--25.6% non suppressorsDex 1 mg
Coryell et al[80], 1991-72 PD patients--36% non suppressors
Erhardt et al[33], 200630 HC30 PD subjects↑ Basal plasma levels↑ Basal-17% hyperresponder to Dex-CRH
Petrowski et al[82], 201034 HC34 PD subjects= Basal salivary levels; abnormally absent cortisol awakening response--Absent cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test
Lieberman et al[79], 198322 MDE10 PD↑ Plasma cortisol-=DST
Table 3 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis functioning and its correlation with psychopathology in obsessive compulsive disordered patients
AuthorControl groupSampleCortisol levelsOther hormones levelsDSTCorrelations with psychopathology
Monteleone et al[91], 199413 HC13 drug-free OCD patients↑ Plasma cortisol cyrcadian rhythm--↑ Severity of OCD symptoms
Kluge et al[86], 20079 HC9 OCD inpatients w/o comorbid depression↑ Plasma levels↑ Plasma ACTH--
Catapano et al[89], 199020 HC18 OCD patients--27.7% non-suppressionCorrelated with sex (all non suppressors were males) and independently of depression
Coryell et al[92], 198982 panic disordered patients20 OCD outpatients--=-
Altemus et al[90], 199225 HC12 OCD subjects-↑ CSF CRH; ↑ plasma and CSF AVP-↑ Psychopathology
Table 4 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis functioning and its correlation with psychopathology and childhood traumata in social phobia patients
AuthorControl groupSampleCortisol levelsCRH levelsStress testCorrelations with childhood traumata and psychopathology
Potts et al[100], 199115 HC10 SP= Urinary---
Levin et al[103], 199314 HC36 (28 generalized SP + 8 specific SP)= Plasma-Ten-minute talk-
Uhde et al[101], 1994-54-64 SP patients= Plasma and urinary-= DST (Dex 1 mg)-
Martel et al[105], 199921 HC27 SP= Salivary basal and task-related-Modified TSSTCorrelated to anticipatory anxiety in both groups
Furlan et al[104], 200117 HC18 SPAfter speech task: ↑ 90% increase in salivary levels in 7 SP; ↓ 32% in salivary LE in 11 SP. After exercise task: =-Public speaking task and physical exercise task-
Condren et al[32], 200215 HC15 SP↑ Plasma cortisol after test; = plasma cortisol basal= Basal and after testPublic mental arithmetic and short term memory test-
van West et al[106], 200825 HC25 SP↑ Salivary cortisol after test-Public speaking testCorrelated to trait but not state anxiety levels
Roelofs et al[107], 200922 HC, 17 patients with PTSD18 SP↑ Salivary cortisol after test-Social approach-avoidance task in social stress condition (TSST)Cortisol increase correlated to the social avoidance behavior
Elzinga et al[99], 201016 SAD w/o CA, 16 HC, 16 PTSD with CA9 SAD with CA↑ Salivary cortisol after test; = salivary cortisol basal-TSSTCA is associated with ↑ cortisol reactivity to TSST
Lanzenberger et al[102], 201018 HC12 subjects with SP↓ Plasma levels--Negative correlations with 5HT binding in brain regions and positive correlation with trait anxiety
Table 5 Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis functioning and its correlations with psychopathology in generalized anxiety disordered patients
AuthorControl groupSampleCortisol levelsDSTCorrelations with psychopathology
Mantella et al[114], 200842 HC71 GAD subjects↑ Morning basal and peak salivary cortisol-↑ Psychopathology
Steudte et al[118], 201115 HC15 GAD patients↓ Cortisol in the first and second 3-cm hair segments; = salivary diurnal cortisol profiles--
Schweizer et al[112], 1986-79 GAD subjects-27% non-suppression-
Tiller et al[113], 198813 HC30 GAD patients-27% non-suppressionNormalization of HPAA suppression after successful non drug behavioral treatment
Tafet et al[115], 20058 non treated GAD outpatients17 treated GAD outpatients= Morning plasma cortisol; ↑ evening plasma cortisol-↓ Evening plasma cortisol level after cognitive treatment
Pomara et al[116], 200590 HC41 GAD patients↑ Plasma cortisol levels-↓ Plasma cortisol after acute and chronic treatment with diazepam
Rosenbaum et al[117], 198322 HC22 GAD subjects= 24 h urinary cortisol levels--