Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Psychiatry. Jan 19, 2022; 12(1): 187-203
Published online Jan 19, 2022. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v12.i1.187
Table 1 Summary of studies included in the review
Sample size
Sex (% female)
Mean age (yr)
Methodological quality
Suicide outcome
Suicide assessment
Treatment study testing and result
Depression-related factors
Significant risk factors
Almeida et al[2], 2016 381700725Suicide attempt and completed suicideNational registerChronic diseases (+)
Arslanoglou et al[20], 2019 6373.0280.524Suicidal ideation Scale: HDRSPsychological: PATH. Better outcomes for the PATH intervention vs supportive careDepressive episode onset (-)Cognitive function, (+) disability, (-) and social factors (social support) (-)
Aslan et al[3], 2019 15072.771.34Suicidal ideation and suicide attemptClinical interview: DSM-IVEducation attainment, (-) anxiety symptoms (+)
Awata et al[40], 2005 114558.0776.294Suicidal ideationClinical interview: DSM-IVDepressive symptoms (+)Disability (+) and social factors (social support) (+)
Barak et al[53], 2006 20258.4176.555Suicide attemptLocal/regional registerAntidepressant use (-)
Barnow et al[39], 2004 51648.184.374Wish to die and suicidal ideationScale: HDRS, GMS-AAge, (+) sex (female), (+) subjective health status (-)
Bartels et al[41], 2002 224023.95Suicidal ideation and suicide attemptScale: PSSEthnic group (Asians), (+)1 medical diseases, (+) social factors (social support), (-) comorbid anxiety disorder (+)
Bakkane Bendixen et al[59], 2018 2186775.64Suicidality riskScale: MADRSAnxiety symptoms (+)
Bickford et al[42], 2021 8862.571.54Suicidal ideationScale: GSISDepressive symptoms (+)Frailty and disability (+)
Bickford et al[10], 2020 22564.971.44Suicidal ideationScale: GSISPerceived stress (+)
Bonnewyn et al[58], 20176859.2973.875Wish to dieScale: SSI
Brådvik and Berglund[54], 2009 12065Suicide attempt and completed suicideNational register
Bruce et al[43], 20044126Suicidal ideationScale: SSIPharmacological: PROSPECT. Reductions in suicidal ideation due to treatment
Cole et al[44], 2006 11363.479.25Suicidal ideation and suicide attemptClinical interview: DSM-IVMajor depression (+)
Coupland et al[55], 2011 6074666.7756Suicide attemptLocal/regional registerPharmacological: Antidepressants. No effect of treatments on suicidal outcomesAntidepressant use (+)Self-harm (+)
Hwang et al[35], 2010 70079.46Suicide attemptClinical interviewBrain volume (i.e., reductions in dorsal medial prefrontal cortex) (+)
Innamorati et al[56], 2014 33124.44Suicide attempt and completed suicideAutopsySocial factors: Widowhood, (+) loneliness, (+) social support. (-) Life stressors (+)
Jokinen and Nordström[37], 2008 9973.73735Suicide attempt and completed suicideNational registerDexamethasone suppression (-)
Kiosses et al[45], 2017 7473.6680.904Suicidal ideation and planScale: MADRSPsychological: PATH. Better outcomes for the PATH intervention vs supportive careNegative emotions, (+) cognitive function (-)
La Pia et al[46], 20013655.554Suicidal ideationScale: HDRSPharmacological: Fluoxetine. Suicidal ideation reductions as a robust predictor of response
Lee et al[21], 200315632.6973.62Suicidal ideation and suicide attemptScale: HDRS; Clinical interview: DSM-IVDelusional symptoms, (+) depressive symptoms (+)Cognitive function, (-) disability (+)
Liu et al[36], 2020 47083.85Suicidal ideation Scale: SSIDepressive symptoms (+)Chemokines (MCP-2/CCL8) (+)
Lohman et al[47], 2016 11269.676.56Suicidal ideation Scale: HDRSNurse-based: CAREPATH. Lower proportions (31.3%) of CAREPATH patients showing suicidal ideation at follow-up, vs TAU patients (63.6%)Ethnic group (minorities), (-) disability, (+) burdensomeness (+)
Lutz et al[48], 2021756671.574Suicidal ideation Scale: GSISPsychological: 12-wk problem-solving therapy. Changes in functional disability predicted the changes in suicidal ideation Disability (+)
Lynch et al[38], 2004 7762.369.513Suicidal ideation Scale: ASIQHopelesness (+)Negative affect intensity and reactivity (+)
Mansour et al[25], 2020 554661.576.87Suicidal ideation Clinical Interview: ICD-10Ethnic group (White) (+)
McIntyre et al[22], 2008 176328.5973.684Wish to die and suicidal ideationScale: GSISSubjective health status, (-) medical conditions, (+) disability, (+) health service utilization, (+) anxiety disorder (+)
Meeks et al[49], 2008 1486080.35Suicidal ideation Center admission recordSleep difficulty (+)Chronic pain, (+)
Morse and Lynch[50], 2004 6569.270.34Suicidal ideation Scale: ASIQ
Nishida et al[33], 2015 2441.6778.78Completed suicideAutopsyStroke severity (+)
Richard-Devantoy et al[57], 2012 4062.576.59Suicide attemptClinical interview: DSM-IVCognitive function (-)
Sacco et al[60], 2015 848052.9775.915Suicidality riskClinical Interview: ICD-10Depressive symptoms (+)Alcohol use disorder, (+) liver disease (+)
Szanto et al[51], 2003 39572.9171.44Suicidal ideation Scale: HDRSPharmacological and psychological: Paroxetine, nortriptyline with or without psychotherapy. Participants with a higher risk of suicidality needed a greater time for suicidal ideation reduction Depressive episode onset, (-) number of episodes, (+) depressive symptoms, (+) recurrence of depressive episode (+)Psychiatric inpatient (+)
Tan and Wong[52], 2008 8069.172.75Suicidal ideation and suicide attemptScale: BDI, SSI. Clinical interview (not specified)History of suicide behavior (+)Sex (female), (+) psychiatric inpatient treatment (-)
Zivin et al[34], 2007 6542327Completed suicideNational registerSubstance use disorder, (+) PTSD (-)