Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Psychiatr. May 19, 2020; 10(5): 95-100
Published online May 19, 2020. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v10.i5.95
Table 1 Reports of lead poisonings due to adulterated-opium abuse and their supplementary data
Type of studyCountryGender–age/mean age (y/o)Route of abuseMajor clinical findingsLaboratory findingsBLL (µg/dL)TreatmentRef.
Case reportIranM-34IngestionAP, N/VAnemia, basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, elevated liver enzymes95CaNa2EDTA[9]
Case reportIranM-57IngestionAP, nausea, severe constipationAnemia, elevated liver enzymes81CaNa2EDTA[9]
Case reportIranM-45IngestionEpigastric and periumbilical APAnemia, elevated liver enzymes37.5Opium cessation[9]
Case reportIranM-65IngestionAP, Burton's line, generalized ileus, N/VAnemia, elevated liver enzymes150Dimercaprol + CaNa2EDTA[11]
Case reportIranM-25Ingestion and inhalationAP, malaise, N/V, weakness, excess sweating, dark urine, generalized bone painAnemia, elevated liver enzymes350Dimercaprol + CaNa2EDTA[16]
Case reportNetherlandsM-40IngestionAPAnemia, basophilic stippling, elevated liver enzymes86Dimercaprol + CaNa2EDTA[17]
Case reportIranM-40IngestionParesthesia in upper and lower extremities, low muscle strength, abdominal tenderness, late onset quadriplegiaAnemia, elevated liver enzymes> 200Dimercaprol + CaNa2EDTA, followed by Succimer[18]
Case reportIranM-32IngestionAP, constipation, loss of appetiteBasophilic stippling50Dimercaprol[19]
Descriptive, cross-sectionalIranM/F-average age: 41.8 ± 13.5IngestionAP, anorexia, weight loss, constipation, nauseaAnemiaAverage: 145 ± 61NA (referred to toxicologists)[20]
Descriptive, retrospectiveIranM-20 to 39InhalationAbdominal crampsAnemiaAverage: 109 ± 37.6Dimercaprol ± CaNa2EDTA[21]
Case reportIranM-38Ingestion and inhalationSevere AP, Burton’s line, muscle weakness, myalgias, and bad temperBasophilic stippling73Dimercaprol + CaNa2EDTA, DP[22]
Case reportSingaporeF-40Ingestion and inhalationSevere lower APAnemia, punctate basophiliaNACalcium gluconate, calcium disodium versenate[7]
Case reportSingaporeM-63IngestionAPAnemia, punctate basophiliaNACalcium gluconate, calcium disodium versenate[7]
Case reportUnited KingdomM-46InhalationColicky AP, constipation, irritability and malaiseExtravascular haemolytic anaemia with punctate basophilic stippling113.8CaNa2EDTA[23]
Case reportIranM-32IngestionDysarthria and progressive upper limb weakness following a refractory AP, constipation, nausea and headacheAnemia, high liver function tests and bilirubin256DP[24]
Case reportIranF-36IngestionSever colicky AP, NV, Pleuritic chest pain, ejection fraction 30%, massive bilateral pleural effusionAnemia (hypochromic- microcytic)78CaNa2EDTA[25]
Case seriesIranM/F-average age: 50.4 ± 13.4IngestionAcute sever APAnemiaAverage: 76.2NA[26]
Case seriesNetherlandsM-average age: 44IngestionAP, NVAnemia, elevated liver enzymesAverage: 179.4CaNa2EDTA[27]
Case seriesIranM-average age: 49.82 ± 11.52IngestionAP, Loss of Appetite, Sleep Disturbance, Fatigue, ConstipationAnemiaAverage: 93.36 ± 27.84DP[28]