Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Psychiatr. Jun 22, 2015; 5(2): 243-254
Published online Jun 22, 2015. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v5.i2.243
Table 2 Negative Association Studies and studies with inconclusive results
Ref.Country studiedStudy designSuicide data sourceRecession periodEconomic indicators Findings
Hintikka et al[37]FinlandTime series Study Regression analysesCauses of death statistics reported by Statistics Finland in 19961990-1995Unemployment Rate and Gross Domestic ProductFemale and Male Suicide rates positively associated with increases in GDP (P < 0.05)
Rancans et al[35]LatviaTime series study Descriptive statisticsStatistical Yearbooks of the Medical Statistics Bureau of the Latvian Ministry of Health and the Demographic Yearbooks of the Latvian Central Statistical Bureau1990-1994Gross Domestic Product and Unemployment ratesRapid increase in suicide rates after 1989 reaching a maximum in 1993 (42.5 per 100000) The drop in GDP after 1990/1991 and the subsequent rise in unemployment did not correspond strictly with suicide rates changes
Neumayer[40]GermanyPanel study using regression analysesThe German Federal Statistical OfficeNot specifiedUnemployment rates for initial analysis and gross domestic product for sensitivity analysisA decrease in suicides for every percentage point increase in unemployment rate in males (0.98% decrease P < 0.1) and females (1.9% decrease P < 0.05) A decrease in suicides for every percentage point increase in unemployment rate in males (1.22% decrease NS) and females (1.97% decrease in females P < 0.01) Sensitivity analysis found that decreases in suicide rates were not associated with recession
Gonzalez et al[36]MexicoPanel study using regression analysisAdministrative records of death certificatesNot SpecifiedState Gross Domestic Product Per CapitaDecreases in state GDP per capita associated with decreases in the overall suicide rate across all states (P < 0.01)
Mackenbach et al[39]25 European countries in Western and Eastern EuropeTime series study with regression analysisInternational Mortality Data Base of the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease ControlNot SpecifiedGross Domestic ProductChanges in gross domestic product were not significantly associated with overall suicide rates across all countries in men and women
Saurina et al[41]England and its sub-regionsPanel study using conditional and hierarchical mixed regression modellingUnited Kingdom Office for National Statistics2008-2010Unemployment RatesThe increase in suicides between 2008 and 2010 was not statistically significant No significant association between unemployment rates and suicide at the national level, although at the regional level there were statistically significant negative and positive associations
Laanani et al[38]Austria, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United KingdomPanel Study using regression analysisEurostat mortality database2008-2010Unemployment RatesOverall 0.3% increase in suicide rates for every 10% increase in unemployment overall (95%CI: 0.1-0.5) Associations between unemployment and suicide within countries were inconsistent A positive significant association between unemployment and suicide in three countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom and France was found