Review
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World J Clin Infect Dis. Jun 25, 2012; 2(3): 39-53
Published online Jun 25, 2012. doi: 10.5495/wjcid.v2.i3.39
Pathogenesis of Chagas disease cardiomyopathy
Priscila Camillo Teixeira, Amanda Farrage Frade, Luciana Gabriel Nogueira, Jorge Kalil, Christophe Chevillard, Edecio Cunha-Neto
Priscila Camillo Teixeira, Amanda Farrage Frade, Luciana Gabriel Nogueira, Jorge Kalil, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Laboratory of Immunology, Heart Institute (Incor), School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 05403-001 São Paulo, Brazil
Priscila Camillo Teixeira, Amanda Farrage Frade, Luciana Gabriel Nogueira, Jorge Kalil, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Institute for Investigation in Immunology (III), INCT, 05403-001 São Paulo, Brazil
Jorge Kalil, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, 05403-001 São Paulo, Brazil
Christophe Chevillard, INSERM, UMR 906, 13385 Marseille, France
Christophe Chevillard, Aix-Marseille University, UMR 906, 13385 Marseille, France
Author contributions: All authors had an equal contribution. Chevillard C and Cunha-Neto E prepared the framework of the article; Teixeira PC, Frade AF, Nogueira LG prepared the multiple drafts; Kalil J, Chevillard C and Cunha-Neto E improved the quality of the draft.
Supported by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale; the Aix-Marseille University (Direction des Relations Internationales); USP-COFECUB program; the ARCUS II PACA Brésil program; CNPq (Brazilian National Research Council); and FAPESP (São Paulo State Research Funding Agency-Brazil); a São Paulo State Research Funding Agency - FAPESP fellowship to Teixeira PC, Nogueira LG and Frade AF; Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq productivity awards to Cunha-Neto E
Correspondence to: Dr. Christophe Chevillard, PhD, INSERM, U906, Genetics and Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, School of Medicine, Marseilles, 27, Bd Jean, Moulin 13385 Marseilles Cedex 5, France. christophe.chevillard@univmed.fr
Telephone: +33-491-324453 Fax: +33-491-796063
Received: November 18, 2011
Revised: May 7, 2012
Accepted: June 4, 2012
Published online: June 25, 2012
Abstract

Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagas disease is mainly affecting rural populations in Mexico and Central and South America. The World Health Organization estimates that 300 000 new cases of Chagas disease occur every year and approximately 20 000 deaths are attributable to Chagas. However, this organisation classified Chagas disease as a neglected tropical disease. The economic burden of this disease is significant. In many Latin American countries, the direct and indirect costs, including the cost of health care in dollars and loss of productivity, attributable to Chagas disease ranges from $40 million to in excess of $800 million per nation per annum. So, it remains a contemporary public health concern. In chronic phase, mortality is primarily due to the rhythm disturbances and congestive heart failure that result from the chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy (CCC) due to the persistence presence of parasites in the heart tissue. Mechanisms underlying differential progression to CCC are still incompletely understood. In the last decades immunological proteomic genetic approaches lead to significant results which help to disperse the veil covering the knowledge of the pathogenic process. Here, we reported these significant progresses.

Keywords: Chagas, Pathogenesis, Cardiomyopathy, Susceptibility, Parasitic