Therapeutics Advances
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hypertens. Feb 23, 2016; 6(1): 1-17
Published online Feb 23, 2016. doi: 10.5494/wjh.v6.i1.1
Figure 1
Figure 1 Rho kinase activation and downstream effects on cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension (as well as in cardiovascular disease). GEFs: Guanine nucleotide exchange factors; GAPs: GTPase activating proteins; GTP: Guanosine-triphosphate; GDP: Guanosine-diphosphate; MYPT1: Myosin binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase 1; MLC2: Myosin light chain 2; ERM: Ezrin/radixin/moesin; SMC: Smooth muscle cell. Adapted from references[2,47,144,145].
Figure 2
Figure 2 Comparative levels of Rho kinase activity in circulating leukocytes (determined as phosphorylated/total MYPT-1 ratio) in healthy normotensive controls, in untreated hypertensive patients without LVH and in untreated hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (Data shown as mean ± SEM). aP < 0.01 vs Controls; bP < 0.01 vs untreated hypertensive patients without left ventricular hypertrophy (after significant ANOVA, respectively). Adapted, with permission from reference[47]. LVH: Left ventricular hypertrophy.
Figure 3
Figure 3 Rho kinase activity in circulating leukocytes (determined as phosphorylated/total MYPT-1 ratio) in untreated hypertensive patients (white bar, mean age 48 years, mean BP 121 mmHg) and in hypertensive diabetic patients under antihypertensive and anti-diabetic pharmacological treatment (black bar, mean age 51, mean BP 111 mmHg). Data shown as mean ± SEM, adapted with permission from reference[48].
Figure 4
Figure 4 Schematic view of the current renin angiotensin system and sites of possible therapeutic interventions in hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling. Letters in blue: Receptor agonists or enzyme activators; surrounded by interrupted lines: Enzyme/receptor inhibitors. AT1R: Angiotensin II receptor type 1; AT2R: Angiotensin II receptor type 2; ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme I; ACE2: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2; MrgDR: Mas-related G protein–coupled receptor; NEP: Neutral endopeptidase; TOP: Thimet oligopeptidase; POP: Prolyl oligopeptidase; PCP: Prolyl carboxypeptidase. Adapted and modified from reference[146].