Therapeutics Advances
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Hypertens. Feb 23, 2016; 6(1): 1-17
Published online Feb 23, 2016. doi: 10.5494/wjh.v6.i1.1
Regression of cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension: Novel relevant mechanisms
Jorge E Jalil, María P Ocaranza
Jorge E Jalil, P Universidad Católica de Chile, School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Santiago 758-0150, Chile
María P Ocaranza, P Universidad Católica de Chile, School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Santiago 758-0150, Chile
Author contributions: Jalil JE planned, designed, wrote and revised the manuscript; Ocaranza MP designed, wrote and revised the manuscript.
Supported by Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT, Chile) grants FONDECYT 1121060 (to JEJ and MPO), FONDEF D11I1122 (to MPO and JEJ) and FONDAP 15130011 (to MPO).
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Jorge E Jalil, MD, Professor of Medicine, P Universidad Católica de Chile, School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases. Marcoleta 367 Piso 8, Santiago 758-0150, Chile.
Telephone: +56-2-23543633 Fax: +56-2-26338574
Received: June 16, 2015
Peer-review started: June 18, 2015
First decision: July 31, 2015
Revised: November 16, 2015
Accepted: December 3, 2015
Article in press: December 4, 2015
Published online: February 23, 2016
Core Tip

Core tip: Antihypertensive treatment normalizes high blood pressure, partially reverses organ damage, and reduces the incidence of heart and renal failure. However, residual organ damage and high risk for cardiovascular events still persist. We review here novel relevant mechanisms of cardiovascular damage in hypertension, their role and evidence in prevention/regression of cardiovascular remodeling and their possible clinical impact. We focus on the signaling pathway RhoA/Rho kinase, on the impact of the vasodilatory peptides from the renin angiotensin system and some insights on the role of estrogens and myocardial chymase in cardiovascular remodeling due to hypertension.