Published online Dec 12, 2019. doi: 10.5494/wjh.v9.i3.30
Peer-review started: July 16, 2019
First decision: August 7, 2019
Revised: September 4, 2019
Accepted: November 26, 2019
Article in press: November 26, 2019
Published online: December 12, 2019
Self-efficacy is defined an individual’s belief in completing necessary actions to achieve the desired goal. For individuals with hypertension and other chronic conditions, self-efficacy has been an essential factor to predict adherence to treatment behaviors.
To examine self-efficacy for managing chronic conditions in individuals with hypertension.
A total of 1087 individuals with chronic conditions in two groups (hypertension and non-hypertension groups) were selected in this study. The two groups’ self-efficacy for managing chronic conditions were investigated using the five domains of patient reported outcomes measurement information system self-efficacy for managing chronic conditions measures (PROMIS-SE); daily activities, emotions, medication and treatment, social interactions, and symptoms. Also, the relationships between self-efficacy and other health-related outcomes for the hypertension group were examined using structural equation modeling.
Among 1087 participants, 437 reported having hypertension. The hypertension and non-hypertension groups were statistically different in self-efficacy for managing daily activities [F (1, 598) = 5.63, P < 0.05]. Structural equation modeling indicated that for individuals with hypertension, two domains of PROMIS-SE (managing daily activities and emotions) significantly predict global physical health (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 sequentially), and one domain (managing emotions) significantly predicts mental health (P < 0.001). Hypertension patients’ general quality of life was significantly predicted by global physical health (P < 0.001) and mental health (P < 0.001).
The hypertension group reported deficits in self-efficacy in managing daily activities as compared to the non-hypertension group. In this hypertension group, self-efficacy functioned as an indirect predictor of general quality of life, mediated by global physical and mental health.
Core tip: Self-efficacy is an essential factor for predicting treatment adherence, but individuals with hypertension report deficits in self-efficacy for managing hypertension and other comorbid conditions. This study compared self-efficacy for managing chronic conditions between patients with hypertension and patients with other chronic conditions. Also, structural relationships of self-efficacy for managing hypertension and comorbid conditions with other health-related outcomes were examined. This study indicates that deficits in self-efficacy is particularly true for self-efficacy in managing daily activities. Self-efficacy functions as an indirect factor, mediated by global physical and mental health, to predict quality of life.