Published online Nov 28, 2016. doi: 10.5412/wjsp.v6.i3.30
Peer-review started: May 30, 2016
First decision: June 30, 2016
Revised: August 6, 2016
Accepted: August 27, 2016
Article in press: August 29, 2015
Published online: November 28, 2016
Core tip: Hyperglycemia is not innocuous, especially in the critically ill; and glucose control has been shown to significantly impact morbidity and mortality. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of the “diabetes of stress”; we summarize the major investigations that constitute the body of evidence and the reasons behind current practices. Further, we emphasize glucose considerations in special populations, especially trauma and postoperative populations. Finally, we provide insight on the relative importance of avoiding hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability.