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World J Immunol. Jan 24, 2022; 12(1): 1-8
Published online Jan 24, 2022. doi: 10.5411/wji.v12.i1.1
Historical evolution, overview, and therapeutic manipulation of co-stimulatory molecules
Henry Velazquez-Soto, Fernanda Real, Maria C Jiménez-Martínez
Henry Velazquez-Soto, Fernanda Real, Maria C Jiménez-Martínez, Department of Immunology and Research Unit, Institute of Ophthalmology “Conde de Valenciana”, Mexico City 06800, Mexico
Maria C Jiménez-Martínez, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
Author contributions: Velazquez-Soto H drafted the paper and designed the outline; Real F prepared the figures and tables, and reviewed the paper; Jiménez-Martínez MC reviewed the paper, figures and tables, coordinated the paper’s preparation, and approved the final version.
Supported by Institute of Ophthalmology “Fundación Conde de Valenciana”; Velazquez-Soto H received fellowship 294674 from CONACYT during his doctoral studies in Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Médicas, Odontológicas y de la Salud (Farmacología Clínica), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM); Real F with CVU 917729, recieved fellowship from CONACYT during his master studies in Programa de Maestría en Ciencias Médicas, Odontológicas y de la Salud (Farmacología Clínica), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflicting interests.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Maria C Jiménez-Martínez, MD, PhD, Chief Doctor, Department of Immunology and Research Unit, Institute of Ophthalmology “Conde de Valenciana”, Chimalpopoca 14, Col. Obrera, Del. Cuauhtemoc, Mexico City 06800, Mexico. mcjimenezm@institutodeoftalmologia.org
Received: April 28, 2021
Peer-review started: April 28, 2021
First decision: July 8, 2021
Revised: August 5, 2021
Accepted: December 22, 2021
Article in press: December 22, 2021
Published online: January 24, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: Several reviews of co-stimulatory molecules have been published, however, this review summarizes the historical aspects, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the different families of costimulatory molecules implied in processes of health and disease. All of this knowledge has been applied to develop different drugs targeting costimulatory molecules in different diseases like cancer and autoimmune diseases.