Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Clin Pediatr. May 8, 2018; 7(2): 67-74
Published online May 8, 2018. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v7.i2.67
Table 1 Summary of studies that investigated the impact of overweight/obesity on the plethysmographic indices of lung function
No.Ref.No. of children, age range (yr)Exclusion criteria for the study populationObesity indicesPlethysmographic variables
1Li et al[9], 200364, 7-18Children with chronic cardiorespiratory problemsBMI, Trunk Body Fat, and Subtotal Body Fat (total-head). The last 2 indices were calculated as a percentage of body massTLC, RV, FRC
2van de Griendt et al[8], 2012112, 8.5-18.9Children diagnosed as asthmaticsBM, WCTLC, ERV
3Davidson et al[12], 2014327, 6-17Children diagnosed as asthmaticsBMITLC, RV, FRC, ERV, VC
4Rastogi et al[11], 2014168, 13-18History of smoking or chronic inflammatory conditionsBMI, WC, Waist-hip ratioTLC, RV, FRC, RV/TLC, ERV, IC
5Kongkiattikul et al[10], 201545, 8.6-17.3Children with an underlying pulmonary diseaseBMI, WC, WHR Hip circumference Body fat percentage Truncal fat percentage Fat mass index Fat free mass indexTLC, RV, FRC, RV/TLC (only results for FRC were presented)
Table 2 Summary of studies that investigated the impact of overweight/obesity on spirometric indices of lung function
No.Ref.Obesity indicesStudy populationMain findings
1Lazarus et al[34], 1997Total body fat calculated from equations based on skinfold thicknessRepresentative sample of 2464 Australian school children aged 9, 12, and 15 yoTotal body fat was inversely associated with FVC and FEV1 after adjusting for height and weight
2Li et al[9], 2003Trunk and subtotal (total-head) body fat massSixty-four obese children, 7-18 yo without cardiorespiratory problems.No significant associations between the obesity and the spirometric indices
3Perez-Padilla et al[35], 2006Trunk body fatA cross-sectional study of 6784 students 6-20 yoIn children < 11 yr FEV1 and FVC increased with BMI. In subjects > 12 yr lung function increased with BMI, reached a plateau (at a BMI Z score of 1SD) and then decreased among those with highest BMI
4Nageswari et al[36], 2007% body massTwenty obese/overweight children and 20 normal-weight (controls), 12-16 yoFEV1, FVC, FEF25%-75% were significantly lower in the obese group compared to the controls
5Chen et al[18], 2009Subtotal body fat (total-head)A cross-sectional study of 718 children 6-17 yoWC, but not BMI, was positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, and negatively associated with FEV1/FVC
6Spathopoulos et al[37], 2009% body massThree hundred fifty-seven overweight, 300 obese, and 196 normal-weight children. Not well-controlled asthma cases were excludedAll spirometric parameters were significantly different across the three groups. BMI > 85th centile was a significant independent predictor of reduced spirometric parameters after controlling for confounders
7Cibella et al[16], 2011BMICross-sectional study carried out in a sample of 708 children 10-16 yoFEV1 and FVC were lower in children with BMI > 85th centile compared to those with normal BMI. No difference was found for FEF25%-75%, FEV1/FVC
8Feng et al[19], 2012BMIA cross-sectional performed on 1572 healthy children 9-18 yo. Children with asthma were excludedWC was inversely associated with FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC. BMI was positively related with FEV1 and FVC and negatively associated with FEV1/FVC
9van de Griendt et al[8], 2012BMIOne hundred twelve obese children 8.5-18.9 yo, taking part in a multidisciplinary treatment programme.FEV1 and FVC increased by 2.91% and 3.08% after weight reduction following a 6 mo intervention program and this increase was significant. No significant change was observed in MEF50
10Paralikar et al[38], 2012WCThirty obese boys 12-17 yo and 30 age-matched normal-weight boysFEV1, FEV1/FVC and MVV were significantly decreased in the obese group
11Bekkers et al[20], 2013BMI, WCChildren from a birth cohort (n = 1058) examined at the age of 8 yoLarge WC in girls was associated with lower FEV1 /FVC ratio
12Davidson et al[12], 2013BMIThree hundred twenty-seven children 6-17 yo referred for lung testing due to various respiratory problems. Individuals with cardiopulmonary, chest wall disease, or asthma, were excludedPositive relationship between BMI z-score and percent predicted FVC, and VC. Negative relationship between BMI z-score and FRC, ERV, RV, and FEV1/FVC
13Han et al[17], 2014BMI, PBF, WCCross-sectional study in 2681 children 6-17 yoAmong children without asthma, BMI, PBF, and WC were associated with higher FEV1 and FVC, and lower FEV1/FVC
14Khan et al[39], 2014BMI, WC, WHR, skinfold measurementsA sample of 1583 children, < 18 yo. No data on asthma diagnosis was providedOverweight/obese boys, had WC and WHR inversely associated with residual FVC, FEV0.75, and FEV1
15Rastogi et al[11], 2014BMIA sample of 168 adolescents, 13-18 yo, irrespective of asthma statusObese adolescents had lower RV, RV/TLC ratio, ERV, and FRC, and higher IC adolescents; the 2 groups did not differ in measures of lower airway obstruction, namely FEV1/FVC, and MEF
16Torun et al[40], 2014BMIA cross-sectional study of 30 overweight, 34 obese and 64 morbidly obese children, 9-17 yo, referred to a paediatric endocrinology dept. Asthmatic patients were excluded from the studyPEF and FEV25–75 were significantly reduced in in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese children
17Bekkers et al[41], 2015BMI, WCChildren from a birth cohort examined at the ages of 8 yo (n = 1090) and 12 yo (n = 1288)At 8 yo, large WC was associated with lower FEV1/FVC after adjusting for BMI (only in girls)
18Kongkiattikul et al[10], 2015BMI, FMI, body fat percentage, truncal fat percentage, mean fat free mass indexForty-five obese children, 8-18 yoNegative correlation between FRC and almost all obesity indices
19Cibella et al[14], 2015BMIA cross-sectional study of 2393 healthy children 10-17 yo. Children with asthma were excludedFVC and FEV1 were positively but disproportionately correlated to weight. FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75%/FVC ratios were negatively correlated to weight
20Costa Junior et al[42], 2016BMI, WC, body composition (tetrapolar bioimpedance)A cross-sectional study of 40 obese and 35 normal-weight children, 6-10 yo. Children with respiratory problems were excludedObese children had lower FEV1 and FEV1/FVC
21Liyanage et al[13], 2016BMIA cross-sectional study of 55 obese and 220 normal-weight children, 9-15 yo. Children with asthma were excludedNo significant difference in spirometric values
22Akin et al[43], 2017BMI, WC, neck circumferenceA cross-sectional study of 178 children, 5 to 15 yo. Children with asthma were excludedNegative correlation between FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and obesity indices
23Yao et al[15], 2017BMI1717 children, 5 to 18 yo, irrespective of asthma statusBMI is associated positively with FVC, FEV1, and PEF, and FEF25-75, but negatively with FEV1/FVC