Published online Nov 19, 2020. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v9.i3.44
Peer-review started: June 22, 2020
First decision: August 9, 2020
Revised: August 31, 2020
Accepted: September 18, 2020
Article in press: September 18, 2020
Published online: November 19, 2020
Core Tip: Influenza B (IFB) outbreaks occur worldwide and young children exposed to IFB tend to have a higher disease severity compared with adults. The IFB virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family and has two distinct lineages; Victoria lineage and Yamagata lineage. The illness caused by IFB is less severe than that caused by influenza A. IFB illness is less studied in children although its impact is substantial. IFB mostly causes mild to moderate respiratory illness in healthy children. However, the involvement of other systems, a severe disease especially in children with chronic medical conditions and immunosuppression, and rarely mortality, has been reported. Early treatment with antiviral agents decreases the severity of illness and hospitalization. Due to the enormous health and economic impact of IFB, these strains are included in vaccines. In this review, the disease burden, clinical manifestations, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of IFB illness in children are discussed.