Published online Apr 9, 2019. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v8.i2.23
Peer-review started: August 25, 2018
First decision: October 5, 2018
Revised: December 31, 2018
Accepted: January 28, 2019
Article in press: January 28, 2019
Published online: April 9, 2019
Core tip: In this review, we summarize some of the clinical practices recommended to reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. Firstly, it is evident that human milk feeding can reduce the incidence of NEC. Secondly, while most of the studies demonstrated that probiotic supplementation can significantly reduce the incidence of NEC in premature infants, there are still some concerns regarding the quality of probiotic preparations, safety, optimal dosage, and treatment duration. Thirdly, initial empiric antibiotic use should be restricted in daily practice to reduce the incidence of NEC. Lastly, standardized feeding protocols are recommended both for prevention of postnatal growth restriction and NEC.