Published online Nov 8, 2015. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v4.i4.81
Peer-review started: March 31, 2015
First decision: June 3, 2015
Revised: July 11, 2015
Accepted: August 20, 2015
Article in press: August 21, 2015
Published online: November 8, 2015
Core tip: Caffeine is among the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units, it has now largely replaced other methylxanthines. Caffeine reduces the frequency of apnea, intermittent hypoxemia, facilitates extubation from mechanical ventilation, and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary and patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. There are controversies regarding the safety and efficacy of high-dose, early vs late administration, duration of therapy, value in older gestational age infants and the value of therapeutic drug monitoring.