Published online May 8, 2015. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v4.i2.25
Peer-review started: November 20, 2014
First decision: December 26, 2014
Revised: January 8, 2015
Accepted: February 4, 2015
Article in press: February 9, 2015
Published online: May 8, 2015
Core tip: Pyuria is a common feature of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), occurring in 30%-80% of patients. KD patients with pyuria exhibit more severe inflammatory reactions and may have sub-clinical renal injuries. Pyuria in KD originates from the urethra, the kidney as a result of mild and sub-clinical renal injuries, and/or the bladder due to cystitis. Pyuria is not always sterile in KD, but can result from a urinary tract infection (UTI). Because some KD patients with UTIs have urinary tract abnormalities, a complete UTI workup including renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram and/or dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan is recommended in KD patients with UTIs.