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World J Clin Pediatr. May 8, 2015; 4(2): 19-24
Published online May 8, 2015. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v4.i2.19
Appendicitis in children less than five years old: A challenge for the general practitioner
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Claudio Germani, Baruch S Krauss, Egidio Barbi
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Department of Women and Children and General and Specialized Surgery, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, 80138 Naples, Italy
Claudio Germani, Egidio Barbi, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, 34137 Trieste, Italy
Baruch S Krauss, Boston Childrens Hospital, Boston, MA 02130, United States
Author contributions: Marzuillo P wrote the manuscript; Germani C supervised the manuscript drafting; Krauss BS critically revised and contributed to conceptually improve the manuscript; Barbi E conceived the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest: Nothing to declare.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Pierluigi Marzuillo, MD, Department of Women and Children and General and Specialized Surgery, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via L. De Crecchio 2, 80138 Naples, Italy. pierluigi.marzuillo@gmail.com
Telephone: +39-389-4873353 Fax: +39-040-3785727
Received: November 2, 2014
Peer-review started: November 4, 2014
First decision: November 27, 2014
Revised: February 12, 2015
Accepted: March 5, 2015
Article in press: March 9, 2015
Published online: May 8, 2015
Core Tip

Core tip: Acute appendicitis in the first years of life is an uncommon event but with a high incidence of early perforation the younger the patient. We highlight the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical signs, and laboratory clues of appendicitis in young children. The challenge for the practitioner is to perform a timely diagnosis of acute appendicitis in first years of life before complications occur.