Published online Nov 8, 2013. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v2.i4.65
Revised: May 30, 2013
Accepted: June 28, 2013
Published online: November 8, 2013
Core tip: A small clinical study has shown that balanced analgesia using intravenous morphine, intravenous ketorolac, and intravenous tramadol followed by erythrocytapheresis was effective, as shown by pain relief and significant improvement in mood and sleep, in seven sickle cell disease patients aged three to twenty-eight years who presented with vaso-occlusive crisis. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the addition of scheduled oral tramadol to intravenous morphine plus intravenous ketorolac provides adequate pain relief, and reduces morphine requirements, adverse effects, length of patient-controlled analgesia therapy, and length of hospital stay.