Published online Nov 19, 2020. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v9.i3.53
Peer-review started: August 17, 2020
First decision: September 13, 2020
Revised: September 17, 2020
Accepted: September 25, 2020
Article in press: September 25, 2020
Published online: November 19, 2020
Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns. Hospitalized babies frequently need nutritional support from Human Milk Banks. As bacterial species of the genus Enterococcus are part of the microbiota of healthy donors, they may contaminate samples of pumped breast milk.
To identify and characterize the bacterial virulence and resistance in samples isolated from the nipple-areolar region, hands, and breast milk aliquots from donors at the Human Milk Bank of Municipal Hospital Esaú Matos in the city of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil.
The personal hygiene and sanitation of donors were analyzed with the aim of identifying possible reasons for contamination of pumped milk. Cutaneous samples as well as aliquots of unpasteurized and pasteurized milk from 30 participants were obtained. Each Enterococcus spp. isolate underwent a disk diffusion susceptibility test and molecular biology techniques to determine resistance and virulence genes.
Enterococcus spp. were identified in 30% of donors (n = 9), and 11 specimens were isolated. Resistance to tetracycline was highly prevalent, being detectable in 63% of the isolates (n = 7) and followed by intermediate sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, observed in 27% of the specimens (n = 3). The efaA gene was found in 63% (n = 7) of the isolates, while the ace gene was detected in 27% (n = 3).
This study illustrates the importance of microbiological monitoring by Human Milk Banks and the need for alternatives to prevent the presence of Enterococcus spp. in hospital settings.
Core Tip: Human milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns. Hospitalized newborns frequently require nutritional support from a Human Milk Bank. Enterococcus spp. can contaminate human milk, as they are part of the microbiota of healthy donors. This microbial genus is important in human diseases, mainly among newborns; therefore, this study aimed to identify and characterize the virulence and resistance of Enteroccocus spp. isolated from samples from the nipple-areolar region, hands, and raw and pasteurized milk aliquots from donors at a Brazilian Human Milk Bank.