©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Effects of resistance training on cardiovascular health in non-obese active adolescents
Clare Chung-Wah Yu, Department of Health and Physical Education, the Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Clare Chung-Wah Yu, Alison Mary McManus, Jack Tat-Chi Kam, Institute of Human Performance, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Alison Mary McManus, Centre for Heart, Lung and Vascular Health, School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
Hung-Kwan So, Ping Chook, Chun-Ting Au, Albert Martin Li, Rita Yn-Tz Sung, Department of Paediatrics, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Raymond Chi-Hung So, Hong Kong Sports Institute, Hong Kong, China
Christopher Wai-Kei Lam, Faculty of Health Sciences and University Hospital, Macau University of Science and Technology, 999078 Taipa, Macau, China
Iris Hiu-Shuen Chan, Department of Chemical Pathology, Prince of Wales Hospital, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Author contributions: Yu CCW designed and coordinated this study, interpreted the data, and draft the manuscript; McManus AM supervised statistical analyses, data interpretation and the preparation of the manuscript; So HK and Li AM assisted in the pubertal assessment for male participants and took part in the trial coordination; Chook P conducted all endothelial function measurements; Au CT contributed to data collection and statistical analyses; Kam JTC and So RCH designed and supervised the training program of this study; Lam CWK and Chan IHS are responsible for all laboratory assessments; Sung RYT supervised the whole program.
Supported by The University of Hong Kong Small Project Fund; and the University of Hong Kong Research Council Strategic Research Theme Public Health.
Institutional review board statement: The study received ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board for Human Ethics of the University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong Hospital Authority West Cluster.
Informed consent statement: All study participants, or their legal guardians, provided informed written consent prior to study enrolment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Dr. Clare Chung-Wah Yu, PhD, Department of Health and Physical Education, the Education University of Hong Kong, Tai Po, Hong Kong, China. email@example.com
Telephone: +852-29486685 Fax: +852-29487848
Received: May 26, 2016
Peer-review started: May 26, 2016
First decision: June 17, 2016
Revised: July 1, 2016
Accepted: July 20, 2016
Article in press: July 22, 2016
Published online: August 8, 2016
AIM: To determine the benefits of a 10-wk resistance training programme on cardiovascular health in non-obese and active adolescents.
METHODS: This is a pragmatic randomised controlled intervention. The study was carried out in a Hong Kong Government secondary school. Thirty-eight lean and active boys and girls were randomised to either the resistance training group or the control group. Students in the resistance training group received in-school 10-wk supervised resistance training twice per week, with each session lasting 70 min. Main outcome measures taken before and after training included brachial endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation, body composition, fasting serum lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and aerobic fitness.
RESULTS: The only training related change was in endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation which increased from 8.5% to 9.8%. A main effect of time and an interaction (P < 0.005) indicated that this improvement was a result of the 10-wk resistance training. Main effects for time (P < 0.05) in a number of anthropometric, metabolic and vascular variables were noted; however, there were no significant interactions indicating the change was more likely an outcome of normal growth and development as opposed to a training effect.
CONCLUSION: Ten weeks of resistance training in school appears to have some vascular benefit in active, lean children.
Core tip: We have shown that a school-based resistance training programme is adhered to and provides vascular benefit in lean children, lending support to the role school-based physical activity can play in the primary prevention of heart disease.