Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Stomatol. Feb 20, 2016; 5(1): 8-14
Published online Feb 20, 2016. doi: 10.5321/wjs.v5.i1.8
Concepts and challenges of alveolar ridge preservation and augmentation
Etiene de Andrade Munhoz, Camila Lopes Cardoso, Augusto Bodanezi, Marina Barbosa Mello, Renato Yassutaka Faria Yaedu, Osny Ferreira Junior
Etiene de Andrade Munhoz, Augusto Bodanezi, Department of Dentistry, Health Science Centre, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
Camila Lopes Cardoso, Department of Oral Surgery, University of Sagrado Coração, Bauru 11011-160, Brazil
Marina Barbosa Mello, Renato Yassutaka Faria Yaedu, Osny Ferreira Junior, Department of Stomatology, Radiology and Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru 17012-901, Brazil
Author contributions: All authors equally contributed to this paper with conception and design of the study, literature review and analysis, drafting and critical revision and editing, and final approval of the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: No potential conflicts of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Etiene de Andrade Munhoz, DDS, PhD, Department of Dentistry, Health Science Centre, Federal University of Santa Catarina, s/n Delfino Conte Street, Trindade, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil.
Telephone: +55-48-37219520
Received: August 22, 2015
Peer-review started: August 25, 2015
First decision: September 22, 2015
Revised: November 16, 2015
Accepted: December 17, 2015
Article in press: December 18, 2015
Published online: February 20, 2016

The loss of the post-extraction alveolar ridge vertical and horizontal volume constitutes an irreversible process and presents a considerable impact on the prosthetic rehabilitation, particularly when implant-supported. Therefore, alveolar ridge resorption has become a challenge in contemporary clinical dentistry and alveolar ridge preservation and augmentation are an interesting therapeutic approach. The employment of biomaterials, as a therapeutic alternative to preserve bone in height and volume, has been frequently studied over the years, due to its conceptual attractiveness and its simple technique. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss current methods to optimize the alveolar bone repair while maintaining its horizontal and vertical dimensions. This paper is based on scientific studies published in English including systematic reviews and also animal and human studies that were searched using the keywords “alveolar ridge preservation,”“bone substitute”, “biomaterials”, “bone graft” and “grafting”. Either autogenous bone as xenogenic and alloplastic materials, platelet rich plasma and use of membrane are alternatives. It becomes fundamental to understand that alveolar bone loss is still a clinical challenge and alveolar ridge preservation techniques can minimize, but not completely, eliminate the resorption process. The goal of alveolar ridge preservation and augmentation is to use a combination of bone or biomaterials to create bone which is sufficient for dental implant placement. Freeze-dried bone is generally recognized as giving more predictable treatment outcomes than synthetic materials or platelet rich plasma, and membranes must always be used to separate hard and soft tissues to promote optimal tissue healing.

Keywords: Alveolar ridge preservation, Tooth extraction, Bone substitute, Bone regeneration

Core tip: The placement of dental implants generally requires the preservation and augmentation of the alveolar ridge with freeze-dried bone or bone substitutes. Our analysis of animal studies, clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses has revealed that freeze dried bone, despite its limitations, is still among the most predictable of all the available biomaterials for creating high quality bone that can support dental implants.