Published online Feb 20, 2016. doi: 10.5321/wjs.v5.i1.8
Peer-review started: August 25, 2015
First decision: September 22, 2015
Revised: November 16, 2015
Accepted: December 17, 2015
Article in press: December 18, 2015
Published online: February 20, 2016
The loss of the post-extraction alveolar ridge vertical and horizontal volume constitutes an irreversible process and presents a considerable impact on the prosthetic rehabilitation, particularly when implant-supported. Therefore, alveolar ridge resorption has become a challenge in contemporary clinical dentistry and alveolar ridge preservation and augmentation are an interesting therapeutic approach. The employment of biomaterials, as a therapeutic alternative to preserve bone in height and volume, has been frequently studied over the years, due to its conceptual attractiveness and its simple technique. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss current methods to optimize the alveolar bone repair while maintaining its horizontal and vertical dimensions. This paper is based on scientific studies published in English including systematic reviews and also animal and human studies that were searched using the keywords “alveolar ridge preservation,”“bone substitute”, “biomaterials”, “bone graft” and “grafting”. Either autogenous bone as xenogenic and alloplastic materials, platelet rich plasma and use of membrane are alternatives. It becomes fundamental to understand that alveolar bone loss is still a clinical challenge and alveolar ridge preservation techniques can minimize, but not completely, eliminate the resorption process. The goal of alveolar ridge preservation and augmentation is to use a combination of bone or biomaterials to create bone which is sufficient for dental implant placement. Freeze-dried bone is generally recognized as giving more predictable treatment outcomes than synthetic materials or platelet rich plasma, and membranes must always be used to separate hard and soft tissues to promote optimal tissue healing.
Core tip: The placement of dental implants generally requires the preservation and augmentation of the alveolar ridge with freeze-dried bone or bone substitutes. Our analysis of animal studies, clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses has revealed that freeze dried bone, despite its limitations, is still among the most predictable of all the available biomaterials for creating high quality bone that can support dental implants.