Published online Feb 20, 2013. doi: 10.5321/wjs.v2.i1.24
Revised: January 8, 2013
Accepted: January 11, 2013
Published online: February 20, 2013
AIM: To validate accuracy of a novel chair-side test for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 as compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in Periodontal health and disease.
METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from 150 subjects, Group 1 (healthy) - 50 subjects, Group 2 (gingivitis) - 50 subjects and Group 3 (chronic periodontitis) - 50 subjects. A chair-side test strip was indigenously prepared using polyclonal antibodies (principle of immunochromatography) to detect the MMP-8 levels. The detection accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the MMP-8 levels by chair-side test kit were compared with ELISA at baseline and 3 mo after scaling and root planing among the study population.
RESULTS: The novel chair side test detected MMP-8 levels in accordance with ELISA which at baseline were higher in Group 2 and Group 3 as compared to controls (P < 0.05), and these enzyme levels decreased after therapy (P < 0.05). The chair-side test could differentiate healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis. The detection accuracy of the chair-side test strip were on par with ELISA (sensitivity 92.9% and specificity of 100%) which were statistically significant (P < 0.05). A desire to arouse interest about periodontal health and maintenance in the Indian population provided a strong rationale for us to develop our chair-side test strips to suit our economy. Moreover, this was the first ever effort to develop and validate a chair-side test strip to detect MMP-8 levels in the Indian population. This test can be used on a large scale in private dental practice for the early detection of disease, tapping the sites at risk for disease, alongside helps in patient education and motivation for maintenance.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that the novel chair side test kit detects MMP-8 levels a biomarker of periodontal disease progression accurately making it a good chair side diagnostic tool. Further, it is cost effective and time saving which can make it applicable in private dental practice on a large scale for the early detection of periodontal disease.