Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Respirol. Jul 28, 2017; 7(2): 39-47
Published online Jul 28, 2017. doi: 10.5320/wjr.v7.i2.39
Lung microbiome in healthy and diseased individuals
Yulia Evsyutina, Inna Komkova, Oksana Zolnikova, Petr Tkachenko, Vladimir Ivashkin
Yulia Evsyutina, Department of Gastroenterology, First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Inna Komkova, Oksana Zolnikova, Department of Pulmonology, First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Petr Tkachenko, Department of Hepatology, First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Vladimir Ivashkin, Director of University Clinical Hospital 2, First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow 119991, Russia
Author contributions: All authors contributed to this paper with the conception, literature review and analysis; Evsyutina Y, Komkova I and Zolnikova O wrote the manuscript; Tkachenko P and Ivashkin V reviewed and edited the manuscript critically; all authors approved the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors have no conflicts of interests to declare.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Inna Komkova, PhD, Department of Pulmonology, First Moscow State Medical University, Trubetskaya Str., Bld. 8/2, Moscow 119991, Russia.
Telephone: +7-926-7166875
Received: October 30, 2016
Peer-review started: November 3, 2016
First decision: February 16, 2017
Revised: March 15, 2017
Accepted: April 16, 2017
Article in press: April 17, 2017
Published online: July 28, 2017

The data on quantitative and qualitative microbial composition of the respiratory tract of healthy individuals revealed significant differences when compared with the microbiota of patients suffering from respiratory diseases. Possible etiological role of microbiota in pulmonary diseases as well as drug resistance development is of profound interest nowadays. Numerous studies have provided evidence confirming the relationship between gut microbiome and those of lungs. This relationship could explain how changes in the microbial communities in one organ may lead to pathological changes in the other. Till date, some progress has been made in the study of the biological properties of probiotic bacteria, considering their modulating effect on inflammatory immune response. The use of probiotics which exhibits an immunomodulatory potential looks promising.

Keywords: Microbiome, Respiratory diseases, Probiotics, Prebiotics, Gut-lung axis, Synbiotics

Core tip: The role of the respiratory tract microbiota in a healthy state and in respiratory diseases is broadly discussed nowadays. There is also a big amount of data regarding contribution of gastrointestinal microbiota changes in respiratory diseases development. A gut-lung axis conception is of great interest. Perspective of prebiotics and probiotics application in lung diseases treatment looks very promising. Huge number of researches has been done on topics mentioned above. Our objective is to consolidate the current literature to summarize the most recent and most important data concerning this subject.