Published online Aug 28, 2015. doi: 10.5319/wjo.v5.i3.82
Peer-review started: May 21, 2015
First decision: June 24, 2015
Revised: July 19, 2015
Accepted: August 13, 2015
Article in press: August 14, 2015
Published online: August 28, 2015
Thyroid lymphoma is an unusual pathology. Different subtypes of lymphoma can present as primary thyroid lymphoma. This review illustrates via imaging, findings and treatment the need for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment. Patients and methods: patient’s chart, pathological findings and radiological images were reviewed in a retrospective analysis. Over several days, this 80 years old woman developed airway obstruction and rapid enlargement of her thyroid secondary to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She rapidly responded to her oncological protocol. Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease. It is an important diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with rapidly enlarging neck masses. It is a treatable condition with fairly favorable overall survival even with the most aggressive histological subtypes.
Core tip: An elderly woman presented with an enlarging neck mass and airway obstruction requiring intubation. After imaging and histologic work-up, the final diagnosis of the neck mass was primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL). PTL is an important diagnosis to be considered in patients presenting with rapidly enlarging neck masses, usually demonstrating significant response to chemotherapy and favorable prognosis. Tissue biopsy rather than fine needle aspiration is the current gold standard for definitive histologic diagnosis, adding the benefit of subtyping, a crucial prognostic indicator. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for staging these lymphomas. The role of surgery in treating this entity has been diminished.