Brief Article
Copyright ©2012 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.
World J Otorhinolaryngol. Apr 28, 2012; 2(2): 8-13
Published online Apr 28, 2012. doi: 10.5319/wjo.v2.i2.8
Antimicrobial potential of Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit extracts against ear pathogens
Chetan Sharma, Kamal R Aneja, Ramkrashan Kasera, Ashish Aneja
Chetan Sharma, Kamal R Aneja, Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India
Ramkrashan Kasera, Department of Biotechnology, Pune University, Pune 411007, India
Ashish Aneja, University Health Center, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India
Author contributions: Sharma C and Aneja KR performed the majority of experiments; Kasera R helped in identification of bacterial pathogens; and Aneja A helped in collection of ear samples of otitis externa patients.
Supported by Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana
Correspondence to: Dr. Chetan Sharma, Department of Microbiology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India.
Telephone: +91-98-12287101 Fax: +91-17-44238277
Received: October 25, 2011
Revised: December 14, 2011
Accepted: February 27, 2012
Published online: April 28, 2012

AIM: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extracts against pathogens causing otitis externa and compare it with ear drops.

METHODS: Four different extracts, methanol, ethanol, acetone and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts, from the T. chebula were tested for their antimicrobial activity through the agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined through the macrodilution broth method against six different microorganism, five bacterial (one gram positive and four gram negative) and one yeast.

RESULTS: Organic and aqueous fruit extracts displayed activity against all five tested bacterial ear pathogens with a maximum zone of inhibition of 31.6 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Acinetobacter sp. (24.6 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.6 mm), Proteus mirabilis (21 mm) and Escherichia coli (19.3 mm). Of the four solvents evaluated, acetonic fruit extract of T. chebula was found to be best. The MIC values ranged between 0.78 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL for the different bacterial ear pathogens and MBC values ranged between 1.56 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. The acetonic fruit extract showed larger inhibition zones compared to the herbal ear drops, Kan pip with lowest MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and MBC of 1.56 mg/mL.

CONCLUSION: Acetonic extract of T. chebula fruit may be used to treat otitis externa. However, more detailed studies, such as in vivo testing and pharmacokinetics properties, are needed to determine its therapeutic potential.

Keywords: Otitis externa, Terminalia chebula, Antimicrobial activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Minimum bactericidal concentration, Organic and aqueous extracts