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World J Ophthalmol. Aug 12, 2014; 4(3): 56-62
Published online Aug 12, 2014. doi: 10.5318/wjo.v4.i3.56
Updates in uveitic macular edema
Samir S Shoughy, Igor Kozak
Samir S Shoughy, The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh 11462, Saudi Arabia
Igor Kozak, Vitreoretinal and Uveitis Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh 11462, Saudi Arabia
Author contributions: Shoughy SS and Kozak I solely contributed to this paper.
Correspondence to: Igor Kozak, MD, PhD, Senior Academic Consultant, Vitreoretinal and Uveitis Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, PO Box 7191, Riyadh 11462, Saudi Arabia. ikozak@kkesh.med.sa
Telephone: +966-14821234-3772 Fax: +966-14821234-3727
Received: April 25, 2014
Revised: May 21, 2014
Accepted: July 12, 2014
Published online: August 12, 2014
Core Tip

Core tip: Cystoid macular edema is among leading causes of visual loss in patients with uveitis. Inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and prostaglandins are powerful inflammatory mediators which along with the vascular endothelial growth factor are potent mediators of increased vascular permeability in uveitic macular edema. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope in retro-mode is a novel imaging modality that can show each cystoid space located in any layer of the retina and allows the detection of the extent of cystoid macular edema.