Published online Aug 12, 2015. doi: 10.5318/wjo.v5.i3.110
Peer-review started: January 29, 2015
First decision: March 6, 2015
Revised: June 4, 2015
Accepted: June 15, 2015
Article in press: June 16, 2015
Published online: August 12, 2015
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates blood pressure (BP) homeostasis, systemic fluid volume and electrolyte balance. The RAS cascade includes over twenty peptidases, close to twenty angiotensin peptides and at least six receptors. Out of these, angiotensin II, angiotensin converting enzyme 1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AngII-ACE1-AT1R) together with angiotensin (1-7), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and Mas receptor (Ang(1-7)-ACE2-MasR) are regarded as the main components of RAS. In addition to circulating RAS, local RA-system exists in various organs. Local RA-systems are regarded as tissue-specific regulatory systems accounting for local effects and long term changes in different organs. Many of the central components such as the two main axes of RAS: AngII-ACE1-AT1R and Ang(1-7)-ACE2-MasR, have been identified in the human eye. Furthermore, it has been shown that systemic antihypertensive RAS- inhibiting medications lower intraocular pressure (IOP). These findings suggest the crucial role of RAS not only in the regulation of BP but also in the regulation of IOP, and RAS potentially plays a role in the development of glaucoma and antiglaucomatous drugs.
Core tip: Many of the central components of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have been identified in different structures of the human eye. Recent findings suggest that local RAS accounts for long term changes in ocular tissue level. Antihypertensive drugs which inhibit RAS (Angiotensin converting enzyme or AT-receptor blockade) reduce intraocular pressure suggesting their possibility as anti-glaucomatous drugs in the future. Here we describe the local intraocular RAS especially in the anterior part of eye.