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World J Ophthalmol. Aug 12, 2014; 4(3): 35-46
Published online Aug 12, 2014. doi: 10.5318/wjo.v4.i3.35
Choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathological myopia
Kelvin Teo, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Kelvin Teo, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore 168751, Singapore
Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore 168751, Singapore
Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 168751, Singapore
Author contributions: Teo K participated in drafting the manuscript; Gemmy Cheung CM participated in the design and coordination and drafted the manuscript; both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Correspondence to: Dr. Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Singapore Eye Research Institute, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, Singapore 168751, Singapore. gemmy.cheung.c.m@snec.com.sg
Telephone: +65-698-81460 Fax: +65-622-63995
Received: April 17, 2014
Revised: June 30, 2014
Accepted: July 25, 2014
Published online: August 12, 2014
Abstract

Myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV), one of the complications of pathological myopia, is also one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The socioeconomic impact of mCNV in Asian countries is particularly significant due to the rising incidence of pathological myopia. There have been major advances in the treatment of mCNV in the past few years. Previous treatment modalities, such as thermal laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy, aimed to prevent vision loss; however, newer modalities such as intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents have been shown to successfully restore vision in many patients. Challenges remain as long term safety and efficacy of anti-VEGF agents are unknown. This article aims to provide a review of the literature of the epidemiology, progression, clinical course and treatment modalities as well as areas of future developments related to myopic CNV.

Keywords: Myopia, Pathological myopia, Choroidal neovascularization, Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, Laser photocoagulation, Photodynamic therapy

Core tip: Myopic choroidal neovascularization is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide, with increasing significance in Asia. Previous treatments aimed to maintain vision; however, new treatments such as vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors have been shown to restore vision. However, their long term efficacy and safety is still unknown.