Published online Aug 12, 2013. doi: 10.5318/wjo.v3.i3.20
Revised: August 10, 2013
Accepted: August 11, 2013
Published online: August 12, 2013
Keratoconus is a progressive, usually bilateral disease of the cornea that significantly diminishes visual acuity, secondary to a progressive corneal deformity which is characterized by corneal thinning, variable degrees of irregular astigmatism and specific abnormal topographic patterns. Normally it initiates during puberty and is progressive until the third or fourth decade of life, when normally the progression rate is diminished or waned. There are multiple scales to clinically classify keratoconus. One of the most commonly used is Amsler-Krumeich and recently with the development of morphometric and aberrometric techniques, additional scales have been created that allow keratoconus to be classified according to its severity. Despite certain etiology of keratoconus remains unknown, current treatment options are available in patients with ectatic corneas and they vary depending on the severity of the disease and they include spectacles, contact lenses, intrastromal rings, keratoplasty both penetrant or lamellar, cross-linking, refractive lens exchange with intraocular lens implant, phakic intraocular lenses and the combination of these alternatives. Some authors have been using excimer laser in patients with keratoconus but the safety of the procedure is controversial. Currently, the techniques for the management of keratoconus can be classified in 3 types: corneal strengthening techniques, optical optimization techniques and combined techniques.
Core tip: There are several treatment options for the current management of keratoconus patients. These alternatives are increasing and better outcomes could be obtained. The purpose of this review is to summarize the therapeutics advances in keratoconus.