Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Neurol. Aug 30, 2022; 8(1): 1-9
Published online Aug 30, 2022. doi: 10.5316/wjn.v8.i1.1
Table 1 Various biomarker panels in different stroke condition
Source of cases
Source of marker
Panel of marker
Sensitivity/specificity (%)
Stamova et al[20], 2010Gene panelIschemic stroke vs controlRNA, whole bloodBCL6, PYGL, RNASE2, S100A9, S100A12, S100P, SLC16A6,ARG1, CA4, CKAP4, ETS-2, HIST2H2AA93/95
Montaner et al[21], 2008Protein panelCardioembolic vs noncardioembolic strokeProtein, plasmaD-dimer, BNP87/85
Laskowitz et al[22], 2009Protein panelIschemic + hemorrhagic stroke vs controlProtein, plasmaBNP, D-dimer, MMP9, S100B86/37
Jickling and Sharp[23], 2011Gene panelLarge vessel vs cardioembolic strokeRNA, Whole BloodFCRL1, FLJ40125, GRM5, GSTK1, HLA-DOA, IRF6, LHFP, LHFP, LOC284751, LRRC37A3, P2RX5, PIK3C2B, PTPN20A, TFDP1, TMEM19, TSKS, ZNF185, ZNF254, ADAMTSL4, AP3S2100/96
Barr et al[24], 2010Gene panelIschemic stroke vs controlRNA, whole bloodSCA4, ARG1, S100A12, ORM1, CCR7, CSPG2, IQGAP1, LY96, MMP9, ORM1-
Montaner et al[25], 2011Protein panelIschemic + hemorrhagic stroke vs controlProtein, plasmaD-dimer, MMP-9, Caspase-3, Chimerin, Secretagogin, sRAGE17/98
Vanni et al[26], 2011Protein panelIschemic stroke vs controlProtein, whole bloodBNP, D-dimer, MMP9, S100B86/37
Sharma et al[27], 2014Protein panelIschemic + hemorrhagic stroke vs controlProtein, plasmaS100A12, Metalloproteinase inhibitor-4, Prolactin, Eotaxin, EGFR90/84
Table 2 The tabulation of the different stroke conditions of cell-free DNA assessment

Disease specification
Nucleic acid type
Outcome of the study
1Tsai et al[29], 2011Acute ischemic strokePlasmacfDNAElevated plasma cf-nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in acute ischemic stroke patients than healthy controls
2O’Connell et al[34], 2017Ischemic strokePlasmacfDNAElevated cfDNA in stroke patients relative to those diagnosed as stroke mimics (P = 0.001)
3Naumann et al[28], 2017Acute ischemic strokePlasmacfDNAIVT was associated with improved outcome in patients with cfDNA < 10000 kilogenome-equivalents/L (P < 0.05)
4Vajpeyee et al[30], 2018Acute ischemic strokePlasmaHigher cfDNA levels were associated with severity at the time of admission (P = 0.003) and poor outcome as measured by modified Rankin scale 3-mo scores (P = 0.001). Therapeutic intervention mechanical thrombectomy or IV thrombolysis associated with improved outcome in patients with cfDNA < 10000 kilogenome equivalents/L (P ≤ 0.01)
5Kananen et al[36], 2020Mortality ratePlasmacfDNAcfDNA associated with increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 0.1 μg increase in cfDNA, P = 0.0003)