Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hematol. May 6, 2016; 5(2): 51-60
Published online May 6, 2016. doi: 10.5315/wjh.v5.i2.51
Figure 1
Figure 1 Cell-cell interactions that mediate angiogenesis (in a hypoxic microenvironment). Interactions between multiple myeloma plasma cells, endothelial cells and different myeloid cells (including infiltrating monocytes, immature myeloid cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and osteoclasts) stimulate secretion of pro-angiogenic factors. MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase; MM: Multiple myeloma; IL: Interleukin; I-TAC: Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant; SDF-1: Stromal cell-derived factor 1; IGF: Insulin-like growth factor; TGFβ: Transforming growth factor beta; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor; bFGF: Basic fibroblast growth factor.