Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Orthop. Apr 18, 2021; 12(4): 207-213
Published online Apr 18, 2021. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v12.i4.207
Table 1 Summary of reported cases of the fracture of an ossification of the Achilles tendon
Cause of ossification
Onset of fracture
Follow-up period
Previous trauma
Previous surgery
Other factors
Lotke[1] (1970)61FNA-+-Standing at the sinkSurgery (excision and repairing the tendon)Mature bone with fibrosis of the marrow space15 moGood
66FNA-+-UnspecifiedSurgery (excision and repairing the tendon)Mature bone with fibrosis of the marrow space12 moGood
Weseley et al[11] (1976)58MNA-+-None (spontaneous occurrence)Nonoperative (immobilization for 6 wk)→Surgery (excision and transferring peroneus brevis)Mature bone3.5 moNonoperative: poor; surgery: good
Brotherton and Ball[14] (1979)71M12.5 cm+--Walking uneven groundSurgery (reduction and holding with a figure of eight wire)Partly woven and partly lamellar bone, forming a cancellous structure4 moNA
Fink and Corn[8] (1982)42F8 cm--Hypertension, hypothyroidism, obesityStumbling on level groundSurgery (excision and reconstruction with gastrocnemius fascia flap)NA4 moGood
Kernohan and Hall[17] (1984)64M20 cm--Manual workerNASurgery (Achilles tendon graft interposition)NA5 moGood
Suso et al[16] (1988)20M10 cm--Long-distance runnerLong-distance runSurgery (excision and direct repair)Bony trabeculae, separated by fibrous tissue areas3 moGood
Resnik and Foster[10] (1990)36MNA-+-Stepping in a holeNonoperative (immobilization for 6 wk)→Surgery (excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata graft)NANANonoperative: poor; surgery: good
Friedman[13] (1991)41FNA+--Twisting the ankleSurgery (excision, unspecified)NANAGood
Goyal and Vadhva[3] (1997)84M6 cm-+-Crossing a roadNonoperative (immobilization for 12 wk)NA12 moGood
Aksoy and Surat[6] (1998)44M7 cm+--Climbing upstairsSurgery (excision and reconstruction with proximal Achilles tendon flap)NA24 moGood
Parton et al[5] (1998)84MNA-+-Hurrying across a crossingNonoperative (immobilization for 8 wk)NA3 moGood
Haddad et al[15] (1999)67FNA--Hypertension, obesityTripping in the gardenNonoperative (immobilization for 6 wk)NA6 moGood
Mády and Vajda[2] (2000)57M5 cm (bilateral)--History of treatment for clubfeet by serial plaster castsNone (spontaneous occurrence)Surgery (interosseous polydioxanone suture which was reinforced by a local tendon flap)Mature osseous tissue84 moGood
Battaglia and Chandler[12] (2006)55MNA+-Hypertension, dyslipidemiaStrained while pruning a treeNonoperative (immobilization for 12 wk)→Surgery (excision and transferring flexor hallucis longus)Osseous composition6 moNonoperative: poor; surgery: good
Ishikura et al[9] (2015)50F14 cm+--Climbing upstairsSurgery (excision and reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap)Lamellar bone, which is covered by a number of osteoblasts in some areas12 moGood
Gendera et al[18] (2020)70M12 cm-+-None (spontaneous occurrence)Surgery (excision and reconstruction with fascia lata graft)Broad trabeculae of lamellar bone tissue with vital osteocytes12 moGood