Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Orthop. Jan 18, 2017; 8(1): 21-29
Published online Jan 18, 2017. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v8.i1.21
Table 4 Different types of abnormal gaits
Type of the gaitPhysical findings and observationsPossible cause
Antalgic gaitShort stance phase of the affected side Decrease of the swing phase of the normal sidePain on weight bearing could be any reason from Back pathology to toe problem, e.g., degenerative hip joint
Ataxic (stamping) gaitUnsteady and uncoordinated walk with a wide baseCerebral cause Tabes dorsalis
Equinus (tiptoes) gaitWalking on tiptoesWeak dorsiflexion and/or plantar contractures
Equinovarous gaitWalking on the out border of the footCETV
Hemiplegic (circumductory) gaitMoving the whole leg in a half circle pathSpastic muscle
Rocking horse (gluteus maximum) gaitThe body shift backward at heel strike then move forwardWeak or hypotonic gluteus maximum
Quadriceps gaitThe body leans forward with hyperextension of the knee in the affected sideRadiculopathy or spinal cord pathology
Scissoring gaitOne leg crosses over the otherBilateral spastic adductors
Short leg (Equinus) gait (more than 3 cm)Minimum: Dropping the pelvis on the affected side Moderate: Walks on forefoot of the short limb Severe: Combination of bothLeg length discrepancy
Steppage gait (high stepping - slapping - foot drop)No heel strike The foot lands on the floor with a sound like a slapFoot drop Polio Tibialis anterior dysfunction
Trendelenburg (lurching) gaitTrunk deviation towards the normal side When the foot of the affected side leaves the floor, the pelvis on this side dropsWeak gluteus medius
Waddling gaitLateral deviation of the trunk with an exaggerated elevation of the hipMuscular dystrophy