Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Orthop. Jan 18, 2017; 8(1): 21-29
Published online Jan 18, 2017. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v8.i1.21
Table 1 Correlations between the anatomical site of the pain and the possible underlying causes[6]
Location of painCommon possible pathology
Anterior ankle painDegenerative diseaseImpingement
Ankle joint capsule injury ex. Sport injury with maximum ankle joint plantar flexion
Medial pain below the medial malleolusSinus tarsi syndrome Subtalar degenerative changes Tarsal coalition of mid facetSpring ligament or deltoid ligament pathology Tibialis posterior pathology or medial impingement
Postero-medial painTibialis posterior tendonitisFlexor hallucis longus Tarsal tunnel syndrome
Posterior painAchilles tendinopathy Posterior impingementOs trigonum pathology
Postero-lateral painPeroneal tendon
Lateral painStress fracture of distal fibula ATFL injury Lateral impingementSinus tarsi syndrome Subtalar pathology Calcaneal fracture malunion
Heel painPlantar fasciitis Calcaneal stress fracture Entrapment of first branch of lateral plantar nerveFat pad atrophy/contusion Tarsal tunnel syndrome Foreign body reaction Plantar fascia rupture
Mid foot painDegenerative disease Post traumatic arthritisTarsal bones stress fracture Ligament injury ex Lisfranc injury Insertional tendinopathy of peroneal brevis
Forefoot painMetatarsalgia Morton neuropathy Stress fracture Freiberg diseaseMetatarsophalangeal joint synovitis Nail pathology
Forefoot pain - big toeHallux valgus/rigidus Inflamed bunionSesamoiditis Sesamoid fracture
Forefoot pain - 2nd, 3rd and 4th toeClaw toe Hammer toeMallet toe
Forefoot pain - little toeInflamed bunionette