Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Orthop. Apr 18, 2014; 5(2): 134-145
Published online Apr 18, 2014. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v5.i2.134
Figure 8
Figure 8 Circumferential compression of the dog cauda equine. The cauda equina was constricted outside the dura mater using a silicone tube (S), which caused 30% constriction of the diameter of the dura mater using a silicone tube at L6/7 disc level. After 3 wk constriction, clear enhancement was seen inside the cauda equina constricted by a silicon tube (S) as seen on gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) image [T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) image, 600/25 (TR/TE)] (A). No enhancement of epidural root sleeves (ERS) was found on this image. In the cauda equina, where enhancement was found on MR imaging, Evans blue albumin emits a bright red fluorescence which leaked outside the blood vessels, and intraradicular edema was seen under a fluorescent microscope (B). Light microscopy revealed congestion and dilation of the radicular veins (C-E) inside the cauda equina, inflammatory cells infiltration, and Wallerian degeneration (E, asterisk) was observed in the entrapped region. This situation was reflected as breakdown of blood–nerve barrier on fluorescent microscopy and high intensity on gadolinium- enhanced MR imaging. BV: Blood vessel; CE: Cauda equina; ENS: Epidural root sleeves; NR: Nerve root; RS: Root sheath; S: Silicon tube; SS: Subarachnoid space.