Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Clin Oncol. May 24, 2021; 12(5): 367-381
Published online May 24, 2021. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v12.i5.367
Table 1 Summary of the studies analysed in this review
Electroporation protocol

Type of pulse
Number of pulses
Pulse duration
Pulse frequency
Electric field
Muscle contraction/pain reduction
Daskalov et al[36], 1999In vivoECTMonophasic1 burst of 8 pulses100 μs1 Hz0.33-1.25 kV/cmAchievable with biphasic pulses
Biphasic1 burst of 8 pulses50-0-50 μs1 Hz
Biphasic1 burst of 8 pulses50-0-50 μsApproximately 909 Hz
Miklavcic et al[37], 2005In vivoECTMonopolar1 burst of 8 pulses100 μs1 to 5000 Hz (ten or five steps)88 or 313 V/cmAchievable with high frequency pulses
Zupanic et al[38], 2007In vivoECTMonopolar1 burst of 8 pulses100 μs1 Hz600 V/cmAchievable with high frequency pulses
Monopolar1 burst of 8 pulses100 μs5000 Hz
Spugnini et al[39], 2014In vitroECTBiphasic1 burst of 8 pulses50-10-50 μs9 kHz1.3 kV/cmAchievable with biphasic pulses
In vivo
Scuderi et al[40], 2019In vitroECTMonopolar1 burst of 8 pulses100 μs1 Hz1.2 kV/cmAchievable with bipolar HF-EP
Bipolar8 bursts of 50 pulses1-1-1 μs250 kHz3 kV/cm
García-Sánchez et al[41], 2020In vivoECTUnipolarBursts of 8 pulses100 μs1 Hz1.3 kV/cmAchievable with sinusoidal pulses
BipolarNumber of bursts and pulses depend on experiments and frequency100 μs-5 ms10-100 kHz> 1.3 kV/cm
Golberg and Rubinsky[28], 2012Numerical-Monopolar1 pulse100 μs-> 800 V/cmAchievable with an appropriate electrode design and arrangement
Arena et al[32], 2011In vivoIREMonopolar90-180 pulses200 μs1 Hz0.5-2 kV/cmAchievable with H-FIRE
Bipolar180 bursts of 50 pulses2-0-2 μs250 kHz1-4 kV/cm
Bipolar180 bursts of 100 pulses1-0-1 μs500 kHz4 kV/cm
Sano et al[42], 2014In vitroIREBipolar80 bursts of 1 pulse50-2-50 μs1 Hz1.5 kV/cmAchievable with biphasic pulses
Sano et al[43], 2015In vitroIREMonopolar1 pulse100 μs1 Hz1.5 kV/cmAchievable with bipolar pulses
In vivoBipolar8-120 bursts of 1-200 pulsesPulse width: 250 ns-50 μs20 to 20000 kHz (seven steps)Approximately 0.5-2 kV/cm
Sweeney et al[33], 2016In vitroIREMonopolar1 burst of 200 pulses100 μs2 kHz750-1250 V/cmAchievable with high-frequency bipolar pulses
Bipolar200 bursts of 50 pulses1 -1-1 μs250 kHz1250 V/cm
Bipolar200 bursts of 50 pulses1-4-1 μs100 kHz1250 V/cm
Yao et al[44], 2017In vivoIREBipolar90 bursts of 50 pulses2-2-2 μs250 kHz1-2 kV/cmAchievable with H-FIRE and insulated needle electrodes
Bipolar90 bursts of 20 pulses5-2-5 μsApproximately 143 kHz
Bipolar90 bursts of 10 pulses10-2-10 μs Approximately 83 kHz
Bipolar90 bursts of 4 pulses25-2-25 μs Approximately 37 kHz1–1.75 kV/cm
Bipolar90 bursts of 2 pulses50-2-50 μs Approximately 20 kHz1–1.5 kV/cm
Monopolar90 bursts of 1 pulse100 μs1 Hz0.8–1.5 kV/cm
Sano et al[29], 2018Ex vivoIREMonopolar5 pulses100 μs1 Hz1 kV/cmAchievable with (symmetric) H-FIRE pulses
Bipolar5 bursts of 1-200 pulses2-2-2 μsNot available0.17-1.7 kV/cm