Published online Dec 10, 2015. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v6.i6.272
Peer-review started: July 5, 2015
First decision: July 31, 2015
Revised: September 18, 2015
Accepted: October 12, 2015
Article in press: October 13, 2015
Published online: December 10, 2015
Core tip: Radiotherapy is frequently employed as part of the multimodal treatment of pelvic cancers. Despite recent advances in irradiation techniques, acute and late- onset radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity, also known as pelvic radiation disease, is still being frequently reported. This review provides an up-to-date summary on medical and endoscopic approaches that have been evaluated with treating intent, focusing on the best available evidence, primarily randomized controlled studies.