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World J Clin Oncol. Jan 24, 2022; 13(1): 9-27
Published online Jan 24, 2022. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v13.i1.9
New approaches for patients with advanced radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer
Fabián Pitoia, Fernando Jerkovich, Pierpaolo Trimboli, Anabella Smulever
Fabián Pitoia, Fernando Jerkovich, Anabella Smulever, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1120, Argentina
Pierpaolo Trimboli, Clinic for Endocrinology and Diabetology, Lugano Regional Hospital, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Lugano 1111, Switzerland
Pierpaolo Trimboli, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano 1111, Switzerland
Author contributions: Pitoia F contributed to the conception and design of the article and revised it; Jerkovich F and Smulever A drafted the article; Trimboli P contributed interpreting the relevant literature; all authors have read and approve the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Fabian Pitoia is speaker of Bayer, Knight and Raffo. The other authors certify that there is no conflict of interest related to the manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Fabián Pitoia, MD, PhD, Doctor, Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin, University of Buenos Aires, Córdoba 2351, Fifth Floor, Buenos Aires 1120, Argentina.
Received: April 8, 2021
Peer-review started: April 12, 2021
First decision: August 18, 2021
Revised: August 31, 2021
Accepted: December 31, 2021
Article in press: December 31, 2021
Published online: January 24, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has increased due to the rising detection of low-risk small carcinomas. Nevertheless, approximately 10% of patients exhibit advanced disease and two-thirds of the latter will be defined as radioactive iodine (RAI) refractory. After detection, 10-year survival rates are less than 10%, therefore the role of systemic and targeted therapy in these patients has become increasingly relevant in recent years. This review article aims to provide a summary of the current therapeutic strategies in iodine-refractory thyroid cancer, including approved target therapies as well as those for off-label use, RAI resensitization agents, and immunotherapy.