Published online Jan 24, 2022. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v13.i1.28
Peer-review started: February 28, 2021
First decision: September 2, 2021
Revised: September 16, 2021
Accepted: December 11, 2021
Article in press: December 11, 2021
Published online: January 24, 2022
Core Tip: Renal cell cancer is a highly immunogenic tumor infiltrated by cells, including CD8+ T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and macrophages. This observation led to the design of new clinical trials in which patients were treated with immunotherapy. With the growing evidence that proangiogenic factors can have immunomodulatory effects on the host’s immune system, the idea of combining angiogenic drugs with immunotherapy has emerged, and new clinical trials have been designed. In the last few years, several therapeutic options have been approved (immunotherapy and immunotherapy/tyrosine kinase inhibitors) as first-line treatment for metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer.