Retrospective Cohort Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Oncol. Apr 24, 2023; 14(4): 179-189
Published online Apr 24, 2023. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v14.i4.179
Interaction between age and gender on survival outcomes in extramedullary multiple myeloma over the past two decades
Ayrton I Bangolo, Pierre Fwelo, Chinmay Trivedi, Sowmya Sagireddy, Hamed Aljanaahi, Auda Auda, Maryama Mohamed, Sonia Onyeka, Miriam Fisher, Jyoti Thapa, Erwin J Tabucanon, Lyuben Georgiev, Annetta Wishart, Shilpee Kumari, Conrad Erikson, Mary Bangura, Orent Paddy, Rashmi Madhukar, Eugenio L Gomez, Joshua Rathod, Mansi Naria, Basel Hajal, Mohammad Awadhalla, David Siegel, Harsh Parmar, Noa Biran, David H Vesole, Pooja Phull, Simcha Weissman
Ayrton I Bangolo, Chinmay Trivedi, Sowmya Sagireddy, Hamed Aljanaahi, Auda Auda, Maryama Mohamed, Sonia Onyeka, Miriam Fisher, Jyoti Thapa, Erwin J Tabucanon, Lyuben Georgiev, Annetta Wishart, Shilpee Kumari, Conrad Erikson, Mary Bangura, Orent Paddy, Rashmi Madhukar, Eugenio L Gomez, Joshua Rathod, Mansi Naria, Basel Hajal, Mohammad Awadhalla, Simcha Weissman, Department of Medicine, Palisades Medical Center, North Bergen, NJ 07047, United States
Pierre Fwelo, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, UTHealth School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77204, United States
David Siegel, Harsh Parmar, Noa Biran, David H Vesole, Pooja Phull, Division of Myeloma, John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, United States
Author contributions: Bangolo AI searched the literature, wrote, and revised the manuscript; Fwelo P extracted and analysed the data, revised, and edited the manuscript; Trivedi C, Sagireddy S, Aljanaahi H, Auda A, Mohamed M, Onyeka S, Fisher M, Thapa J, Tabucanon EJ, Georgiev L, Wishart A, Kumari S, Erikson C, Bangura M, Paddy O, Madhukar R, Gomez EL, Rathod J, Naria M, Hajal B, Awadhalla M, Siegel D, Parmar H, Biran N, and Vesole DH revised and edited the manuscript; Phull P and Weissman S revised and approved the final version and are the article’s guarantors; All authors certify that they contributed sufficiently to the intellectual content and data analysis; Each author has reviewed the final version of the manuscript and approved it for publication.
Institutional review board statement: The study protocol was reviewed by the Ethics Committee at Palisades Medical Center and the need for IRB approval was waived as the SEER database is a public-use dataset.
Informed consent statement: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was a public-use dataset, of which the informed consent was waived.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Data sharing statement: The data used and/or analyzed in this study are available in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database of the National Cancer Institute (http://seer.cancer.gov).
STROBE statement: The authors have read the STROBE Statement—checklist of items, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the STROBE Statement—checklist of items.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Ayrton I Bangolo, MBBS, MD, Doctor, Department of Medicine, Palisades Medical Center, 7600 River Road, North Bergen, NJ 07047, United States. ayrtonbangolo@yahoo.com
Received: December 17, 2022
Peer-review started: December 17, 2022
First decision: February 20, 2023
Revised: February 20, 2023
Accepted: March 17, 2023
Article in press: March 17, 2023
Published online: April 24, 2023
ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS
Research background

Age has been established as the single most important prognostic factor of extramedullary multiple myeloma (EMM). However, the interaction between age and gender in the mortality of EMM has yet to be studied.

Research motivation

The main motivation of this study was to identify independent predictors of outcomes, as well as how age and gender interact to affect mortality in EMM.

Research objectives

This study has the objective to establish the overall epidemiology of EMM, as well as the interaction between age and gender on mortality.

Research methods

This is a retrospective study involving 858 patients diagnosed with EMM, between 2000 and 2017 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

Research results

Patients older than 80 years and widowed had higher overall mortality (OM) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Eyes, mouth, and ENT involvement were protective factors regarding CSM. There was no interaction between age and gender in the adjusted analysis for OM and CSM.

Research conclusions

Although age is the single most important prognostic value of mortality in EMM, it does not interact with gender to affect mortality in patients with EMM.

Research perspectives

Future prospective studies are needed to better understand the impact of newer agents in the management of this aggressive subset of MM.